In this study, we examined (a) the effects of goal orientations and perceived value of toughness on antisocial behavior toward opponents and teammates in soccer and (b) whether any effects were mediated by moral disengagement. Male soccer players (N = 307) completed questionnaires assessing the aforementioned variables. Structural equation modeling indicated that ego orientation had positive and task orientation had negative direct effects on antisocial behavior toward opponents. Further, ego orientation and perceived value of toughness had indirect positive effects on antisocial behavior toward opponents and teammates which were mediated by moral disengagement. Collectively, these findings aid our understanding of the effects of personal influences on antisocial behavior and of psychosocial mechanisms that could facilitate such antisocial conduct in male soccer players.
Ian David Boardley and Maria Kavussanu
Mental toughness has been described as the combination of attributes that facilitate the pursuit, attainment, and maintenance of performance excellence ( McGeown, St Clair-Thompson, & Clough, 2015 ). Such attributes include self-belief, resilience, thriving on pressure, commitment, personal
Johannes Raabe, E. Earlynn Lauer, and Matthew P. Bejar
the necessary coping skills to effectively navigate the youth sport environment. Researchers have suggested that mental toughness (MT) is a psychological resource that enables athletes to thrive in challenging situations. That is, MT helps athletes cope with the stressors of their sport participation
Karissa L. Johnson, Danielle L. Cormier, Kent C. Kowalski, and Amber D. Mosewich
responses with positive injury outcomes and eventual return-to-play. 3 Mental toughness is one psychological factor positively associated with resilience and sport performance. 4 Mental toughness is conceptualized as “a personal capacity to produce consistently high levels of subjective (eg
Matthew D. Bird, Eadie E. Simons, and Patricia C. Jackman
athletes to cope with and overcome these challenging circumstances, with the ultimate goal of protecting and improving their well-being. Mental toughness is a personal resource that can help athletes to produce consistently high levels of performance and to sustain goal-directed behavior, despite everyday
Jenny Meggs, Mark Chen, and Danielle Mounfield
, and psychological toughness) that are beneficial for success. Previous research using males has highlighted that individuals with low 2D4D typically perform better in sports ( Manning & Taylor, 2001 ), and studies have shown that to be the case in sports such as fencing ( Voracek, Reimer, Ertl
Andrew P. Driska, Cindra Kamphoff, and Suzannah Mork Armentrout
Using the mental toughness framework of Jones, Hanton and Connaughton (2007), the authors interviewed thirteen highly-experienced swimming coaches in a two-part study to determine the specific mental toughness subcomponents present in mentally tough swimmers, and to examine the factors that led swimmers to develop mental toughness. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed using methods outlined by Creswell (2007). While confirming eleven of thirteen subcomponents of mental toughness previously identified by Jones et al. (2007), the participants identified (a) “coachability” and (b) “retaining psychological control on poor training days” as previously unidentified subcomponents of mental toughness. In the second part of the study, the authors identified six higher-order themes describing how both the coach and the swimmer acted to develop mental toughness in the swimmer. Implications for researchers, swimming coaches, and sport psychology consultants are discussed.
Robert Weinberg, Valeria Freysinger, Kathleen Mellano, and Elizabeth Brookhouse
Most of the data obtained in studying mental toughness has come from athletes, coaches, and sometimes parents. The purpose of the present investigation was to explore sport psychologists’ experiences of building mental toughness and their perceptions of how coaches can build mental toughness in their athletes. A phenomenological approach to qualitative research guided the study. Semistructured qualitative interviews with 15 sport psychologists were conducted. A concept map was developed that illustrates the theme and subthemes that emerged from analysis of the interviews. As indicated, sport psychologists felt that coaches could build mental toughness in their athletes by behaving mindfully, which included putting athletes under adverse situations and providing (teaching) them with the mental skills to effectively cope with these adversities. These results both confirm and extend existing research on how to build mental toughness.
Jesús Díaz-García, Bart Roelands, Jelle Habay, Inmaculada González-Ponce, Miguel Ángel López-Gajardo, Tomás García-Calvo, and Jeroen Van Cutsem
, mental toughness (MT) may allow athletes to stay goal directed ( Gucciardi, 2017 ) and to report less stress and more control over sport-related stressors ( Nicholls et al., 2015 ). This suggests that athletes with higher MT might better maintain sleep quality during sport competitions. A positive
Larry Lauer and Craig Paiement
The Playing Tough and Clean Hockey Program was developed to teach youth hockey players ages 12 and older to play within the rules and enhance their ability to respond positively to their negative emotions (i.e., through emotional toughness). Hockey players were taught cognitive and emotional skills within a 3 R’s routine to decrease aggressive acts. Three youth ice hockey players identified as frequently exhibiting aggressive behaviors participated in 10 sessions. A single-subject design was used to analyze participants’ aggressive behaviors as well as emotional toughness. Results reveal slight improvements in all participants, with the largest reductions in retaliatory and major aggressive acts. Several key implications for practice are provided including the use of routines and managing emotional responses.