round (within-tournament preparation). A substantial body of work has examined the components of successful shot preparation and execution within a round ( Cohn, 1991 ; Cotterill, Sanders, & Collins, 2010 ; Nicholls, 2007 ). However, few studies have been dedicated to the identification of cognitive
Jarred Pilgrim, Peter Kremer and Sam Robertson
Alistair P. Murphy, Rob Duffield, Aaron Kellett and Machar Reid
High-performance tennis environments aim to prepare athletes for competitive demands through simulated-match scenarios and drills. With a dearth of direct comparisons between training and tournament demands, the current investigation compared the perceptual and technical characteristics of training drills, simulated match play, and tournament matches.
Data were collected from 18 high-performance junior tennis players (gender: 10 male, 8 female; age 16 ± 1.1 y) during 6 ± 2 drill-based training sessions, 5 ± 2 simulated match-play sessions, and 5 ± 3 tournament matches from each participant. Tournament matches were further distinguished by win or loss and against seeded or nonseeded opponents. Notational analysis of stroke and error rates, winners, and serves, along with rating of perceived physical exertion (RPE) and mental exertion was measured postsession.
Repeated-measures analyses of variance and effect-size analysis revealed that training sessions were significantly shorter in duration than tournament matches (P < .05, d = 1.18). RPEs during training and simulated matchplay sessions were lower than in tournaments (P > .05; d = 1.26, d = 1.05, respectively). Mental exertion in training was lower than in both simulated match play and tournaments (P > .05; d = 1.10, d = 0.86, respectively). Stroke rates during tournaments exceeded those observed in training (P < .05, d = 3.41) and simulated-match-play (P < .05, d = 1.22) sessions. Furthermore, the serve was used more during tournaments than simulated match play (P < .05, d = 4.28), while errors and winners were similar independent of setting (P > .05, d < 0.80).
Training in the form of drills or simulated match play appeared to inadequately replicate tournament demands in this cohort of players. Coaches should be mindful of match demands to best prescribe sessions of relevant duration, as well as internal (RPE) and technical (stroke rate) load, to aid tournament preparation.
Jake Schuster, Dan Howells, Julien Robineau, Anthony Couderc, Alex Natera, Nick Lumley, Tim J. Gabbett and Nick Winkelman
important to compare athletes with their individual normative data. We recommend that these tests be scheduled into the weekly training out-of-competition periods to establish baseline data and meaningful changes. Tournament Preparation In the current format of competition, a balance must be struck between
Tyler W.D. Muddle, David H. Fukuda, Ran Wang, Joshua J. Riffe, David D. Church, Kyle S. Beyer, Jay R. Hoffman and Jeffrey R. Stout
variables discriminating elite American junior men weightlifters . Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 20 ( 4 ), 861 – 866 . PubMed Fukuda , D.H. , Stout , J.R. , Kendall , K.L. , Smith , A.E. , Wray , M.E. , & Hetrick , R.P. ( 2013 ). The effects of tournament preparation on