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Ramón J. Nuviala, María G. Lapieza and Enrique Bernal

The dietary intake, serum levels, and urinary excretion of magnesium, zinc, and copper were studied in 78 women involved in different sports (karate, handball, basketball, and running) and in 65 sedentary women. Seven-day, weighed-food dietary reports revealed that no group of female athletes reached the minimal intake recommended for magnesium (280 mg/day) and zinc (12 mg/day), although their values were superior to those offne control group. The estimated safe and adequate minimal intake of copper (1.5 mg/day) was amply surpassed by the basketball players and runners but was not reached by the handball players. Serum levels and urinary excretion of magnesium, zinc, and copper did not seem related either to their intake or to the type of physical activity performed. The influence of other factors such as nutritional status, bioavailability, intestinal absorption mechanisms, and muscle-level modifications might explain the differences between the different groups of female athletes.

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Mikael Fogelholm

This review examines the hypothesis that vitamin and mineral status in athletes is inadequate for optimal sports performance. The review is based on indicators determined from blood and on studies published since 1980. Most of the studies did not find micronutrient status in athletes to be different from untrained controls. The serum ferritin concentration in females was lower than in males (27 vs. 78 μg · L−1), and the prevalence of low serum ferritin concentration was higher in female athletes than in untrained female controls (37 vs. 23%). Supplementation of water-soluble vitamins and iron was associated with an improvement in the corresponding indicators. Excluding a few studies with mildly anemic subjects, improvements in indicators of micronutrient status were not associated with enhanced athletic performance. Consequently, the levels of indicators of micronutrient status seen in athletes' blood were apparently compatible with optimal physical performance.

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Tuomo Rankinen, Mikael Fogelholm, Urho Kujala, Rainer Rauramaa and Matti Uusitupa

Dietary intakes, trace element status, and anthropometric measures were studied in 12- to 13-year-old boys (n = 49) playing ice hockey (AB) and in 11- to 12-year-old girls who were gymnasts, figure skaters, and runners (AG; n = 43), Thirty-five boys (CB) and 53 girls (CG) not involved in supervised sports were controls. After adjustment for sexual maturation, ABs had larger upper arm muscle circumference than CBs. The sum of four skinfolds was smaller in AGs than in CGs. The intake of energy and all micronutrients examined was higher in ABs than in CBs. Micronu-trient Intakes were not different between AGs and CGs. Compared to CBs, serum ferritin and copper concentrations were lower, but serum zinc concentration was higher in ABs. No differences in trace element status were found between AGs and CGs. Blood investigations did not indicate inadequate trace element status in any of the groups studied.

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Eyad Alshammari, Shahida Shafi, Jaana Nurmi-Lawton, Andrew Taylor, Susan Lanham-New and Gordon Ferns

Physical activity is associated with the generation of reactive oxygen species and may lead to decreased levels of plasma antioxidants and increased oxidant stress. Some studies have reported that antioxidant supplements can reduce the consequences of oxidative stress during exercise. In this study the authors aimed to assess the chronic effects of exercise on endogenous serum antioxidant enzyme concentrations. Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were measured in adolescent girls who were either competitive gymnasts or sedentary controls. The relationship between age, body-mass index, dietary intake, trace-element status, and serum GPx and SOD was determined. The participants in the study were part of a 3-yr longitudinal investigation of exercise and peak bone-mass development in 38 competitive gymnasts and 40 healthy sedentary adolescent females 8–17 yr of age. Serum GPx and SOD were measured using colorimetric assays, and trace elements were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The mean serum GPx concentrations were significantly higher in the gymnasts than in the sedentary females (157 ± 11.1 vs. 126 ± 8.8 U/ml, p < .05). In contrast, serum SOD concentrations were significantly lower in the gymnasts than in the sedentary group (7.24 ± 2.6 vs. 8.57 ± 2.3 U/ml, p < .05). Serum selenium, zinc, and copper were higher in the physically active group than in the inactive group (0.89 ± 0.03, 10.86 ± 0.39, 14.50 ± 0.50 vs. 0.81 ± 0.03, 10.32 ± 0.28, and 14.38 ± 0.42 μmol/L, respectively), although only serum selenium reached statistical significance (p < .05). The findings show that young female gymnasts have an altered antioxidant enzyme profile compared with their less physically active peers.

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Hans Braun, Judith von Andrian-Werburg, Wilhelm Schänzer and Mario Thevis

Research Centre for Nutrition and Food, 2004; ). The recommended daily allowances (RDAs) released by D-A-CH ( 13 ), a cooperation of the German, Austrian, and Swiss Nutrition Societies, were used for the evaluation of the intake of minerals, vitamins, and trace elements

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D. Enette Larson-Meyer, Kathleen Woolf and Louise Burke

-vegeterian women . Trace Elements and Electrolytes, 21 ( 3 ), 141 – 144 . doi:10.5414/TEP21141 10.5414/TEP21141 Wunderlich , S.M. , Feldman , C. , Kane , S. , & Hazhin , T. ( 2008 ). Nutritional quality of organic, conventional, and seasonally grown broccoli using vitamin C as a marker