the training period. Method This study was approved by the ethics committee of the Federal University of São Paulo (appraisal #921.384/2014), and an informed and written consent was obtained from all participants. Study Sample Of the 28 sprinters comprising the Brazilian Paralympic track-and-field
Daniel P. Joaquim, Claudia R. Juzwiak and Ciro Winckler
Douglas J. Casa, Samuel N. Cheuvront, Stuart D. Galloway and Susan M. Shirreffs
Seasonal environmental changes can create unique challenges for year-long training among track-and-field athletes. However, the competitive track-and-field season is held in the summer months of the northern hemisphere and major international track-and-field competitions, such as the World
Oliver C. Witard, Ina Garthe and Stuart M. Phillips
Dietary protein is widely regarded as a key nutrient for allowing optimal training adaptation ( Tipton, 2008 ) and optimizing body composition ( Hector & Phillips, 2018 ; Murphy et al., 2015 ) in athletes including track and field athletes. Track and field athletics encompasses a broad spectrum of
Dana M. Lis, Daniel Kings and D. Enette Larson-Meyer
A variety of special diets are adopted by track-and-field athletes for a multitude of reasons. Gluten-free (GFD), vegetarian, and fasting diets are among the more prevalent diets adopted for health, ethical, religious, and performance purposes. A low fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides
Peter Peeling, Linda M. Castell, Wim Derave, Olivier de Hon and Louise M. Burke
. Nevertheless, if these variables are all accounted for, there may be a role for sports foods and dietary supplements in an athlete’s training and competition routine, particularly within elite sport where marginal performance gains are pursued. The following review presents general considerations for track-and-field
Werner F. Helsen, Nikola Medic, Janet L. Starkes and Andrew M. Williams
and a significant overrepresentation of athletes born in the first quarter of the selection year. In younger athletes, this finding has been demonstrated in numerous team (e.g., ice hockey and soccer) and individual sports (e.g., swimming, track and field) for each age group and level of competition
Robert M. Nideffer
This article describes the development and provision of psychological services to the U.S. Olympic Track and Field Teams for 1984 and 1988. It highlights the special problems encountered when attempting to provide services to elite level coaches and athletes. Helping athletes cope with the pressures generated by international travel, politics, elite level competition, drugs, and money provide the sport psychologist with a tremendous challenge and a moral dilemma.
Ted M. Butryn
This paper examines the cyborg identities of 7 elite track and field athletes using a paradigmatic analysis of narratives (Polkinghorne, 1995, 1997). Following a discussion of philosophical and cultural studies conceptualizations of technology, and a brief overview of various types of sport technologies, I present several themes that emerged through an analysis of the collection of stories told by participants during in-depth interviews. In general, while participants engaged with a range of technologies, their stories dealt predominately with the tensions within world-class athletics between modernist notions of the “natural” body and postmodern conceptualizations of corporeality. The paper concludes with comments about the ongoing politics of sporting cyborg bodies and the increasing relevance of cyborg theory to critical sport studies work.
Katsumi Sugiura, Izumi Suzuki and Kando Kobayashi
Mean daily intakes of energy and nutrients were surveyed from 3-day food records for 62 elite Japanese track-and-field athletes (28 males and 34 females) selected to participate in the 1994 Asian Championship games held in Hiroshima, Japan. Mean energy intakes of male and female athletes were 3,141 kcal (±592) and 2,508 kcal (±537), respectively. Based on the Japanese Recommended Dietary Allowances (JRDAs), long-distance and middle-distance runners had significantly higher energy and macronutrient intakes than did sprinters, jumpers, and throwers. There was no significant difference in micronutrient intake among the different types of athletes. However, of the sprinters, jumpers, and throwers. 15 males (54%) and 22 females (65%) consumed less than the JRDA for at least one micronutrient (i.e., vitamin or mineral). For some athletes, nutritional counseling that provides strategies for increasing food intake is recommended to optimize nutrient intake.
Christopher P. Belcher and Cynthia Lee A. Pemberton
A training program designed to optimize athletes’ performance abilities cannot be practically planned or implemented without a valid and reliable indication of training intensity and its effect on the physiological mechanisms of the human body. The objectives of this paper are to (a) review training-intensity guidelines developed for coaches, inclusive of the associated physiologic metrics validated in a field study; (b) describe a seasonal application of the guidelines for coaches; and (c) share supporting commentary from coaches interviewed in the field study. A standardized system of training-intensity guidelines for the sports of track and field/cross country was field tested. The system was modeled after the standardized system of training-intensity guidelines used by USA Swimming. Track and field and cross country coaches were asked to comment on the perceived utility of the standardized training-intensity guidelines. Results of the field study show that coaches uniformly confirmed the utility and applicability of the training-intensity guidelines.