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Samuel Sigrist, Thomas Maier and Raphael Faiss

Track cycling team pursuit is an Olympic discipline held on velodromes. It is characterized by 4 cyclists completing 4000 m from a standing start as fast as possible. Repeated transitions (using the banks of the velodrome to keep momentum) allow riders to share time in the lead position (exposed to

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Levi Heimans, Wouter R. Dijkshoorn, Marco J.M. Hoozemans and Jos J. de Koning

A cyclist’s steady-state velocity during time trial events in track cycling depends on the balance between power production and power losses. In order to improve performance, athletes train to increase power production and try to minimize power loss. This loss of power depends on rolling resistance

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Ryan G. Overmayer and Matthew W. Driller

During congested competition schedules, like those often experienced at events such as the Olympic Games, recovery strategies are thought to alleviate postexercise fatigue and enhance subsequent performance. 1 , 2 The Omnium is a multirace event in track cycling at the Olympic Games, with short

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Jo Corbett

Purpose:

To investigate pacing strategy during the 1-km time trial (TT) and 3- and 4-km individual pursuit (IP), in elite cyclists.

Methods:

Total times and intermediate times were obtained from the 2007 and 2008 cycling World Championships in the 1-km TT and 2006, 2007, and 2008 World Championships in the 3- and 4-km IP. Data were analyzed to examine the pacing-profiles employed and pacing strategies of “slow” and “fast” performances.

Results:

Similar pacing-profiles were evident in each event, which were characterized by an initial acceleration followed by a progressive decay in split times. In the 1-km TT, the first 250-m split time was a primary determinant of total time, whereas the rate of fatigue over the remainder of the race did not discriminate between performances. The first 250-m split time was also related to total time in the 3- and 4-km IP, although to a lesser extent than in the 1-km TT, whereas the ability to maintain a consistent pacing-profile was of increased importance. There were differences in the pacing strategies of slow and fast performances in the 3- and 4-km IP, with slow performances characterized by an overly quick start with a concomitant slowing at the finish.

Conclusion:

The pacing profiles adopted were similar to the optimal pacing strategies proposed in simulation models of cycling performance. However, in the 3-km and 4-km IP small alterations in pacing strategy appear to be important, at the elite level.

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Romuald Lepers, Paul J. Stapley and Thomas Cattagni

closely to those of Olympic distance triathlon (ie, 1500-m swimming, 40-km cycling, and 10-km running) were analyzed. Because the 40-km time trial is not an official competitive distance in cycling, we chose to analyze 1-hour track-cycling performance. For sprint events, we compared disciplines having

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Kathryn E. Phillips and Will G. Hopkins

Purpose:

To explore the extent to which factors that determine performance transfer within and between time-trial and mass-start events in the track-cycling Omnium.

Methods:

Official finish rank in the 3 time-trial events, in the 3 mass-start events, and in the competition overall were collated in 20 international Omnium competitions between 2010 and 2014 for 196 male and 140 female cyclists. Linear mixed modeling of the log-transformed finish time for the time-trial events and of log-transformed finish rank for all events and final rank provided estimates of within-athlete race-to-race changes in performance and average betweenathletes differences across a season. These estimates were converted to various correlations representing relationships within and between the various events and final rank.

Results:

Intraclass correlation coefficients, representing race-to-race reproducibility of performance, were similar whether derived from finish rank or finish time for the time-trial events. Log-transformed finish ranks are therefore a suitable measure to assess and compare performance in time-trial and mass-start events. Omnium cyclists were more predictable in their performances from race to race in the timed events, whereas reduced predictability was observed in mass-start events. Interevent correlations indicated stronger links in performance between the timed disciplines, whereas performance in any of the mass-start events had only a slight positive relationship with performance in the other massstart events and little or no relationship with the timed events.

Conclusions:

Further investigation is warranted to determine whether factors related to performance in mass-start events can be identified to improve reproducibility or whether variability in performance results from random chance.

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Jason C. Bartram, Dominic Thewlis, David T. Martin and Kevin I. Norton

Purpose:

New applications of the critical-power concept, such as the modeling of intermittent-work capabilities, are exciting prospects for elite cycling. However, accurate calculation of the required parameters is traditionally time invasive and somewhat impractical. An alternative single-test protocol (3-min all-out) has recently been proposed, but validation in an elite population is lacking. The traditional approach for parameter establishment, but with fewer tests, could also prove an acceptable compromise.

Methods:

Six senior Australian endurance track-cycling representatives completed 6 efforts to exhaustion on 2 separate days over a 3-wk period. These included 1-, 4-, 6-, 8-, and 10-min self-paced efforts, plus the 3-min all-out protocol. Traditional work-vs-time calculations of CP and anaerobic energy contribution (W′) using the 5 self-paced efforts were compared with calculations from the 3-min all-out protocol. The impact of using just 2 or 3 self-paced efforts for traditional CP and W′ estimation was also explored using thresholds of agreement (8 W, 2.0 kJ, respectively).

Results:

CP estimated from the 3-min all-out approach was significantly higher than from the traditional approach (402 ± 33, 351 ± 27 W, P < .001), while W′ was lower (15.5 ± 3.0, 24.3 ± 4.0 kJ, P = .02). Five different combinations of 2 or 3 self-paced efforts led to CP estimates within the threshold of agreement, with only 1 combination deemed accurate for W′.

Conclusions:

In elite cyclists the 3-min all-out approach is not suitable to estimate CP when compared with the traditional method. However, reducing the number of tests used in the traditional method lessens testing burden while maintaining appropriate parameter accuracy.

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Naroa Etxebarria, Megan L. Ross, Brad Clark and Louise M. Burke

intervention, which is not the case in track cycling where they perform at a fixed gear. Practical Applications The ability to sustain high power outputs for relatively short periods of time is a crucial asset in many sports, including a 4-km TT. Using the example of the pursuit TT in track cycling, the pacing

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Kirsty Brock, Prokopios Antonellis, Matthew I. Black, Fred J. DiMenna, Anni Vanhatalo, Andrew M. Jones and Stephen J. Bailey

each individual subject, the mean power output during the 93-kJ self-paced trial was multiplied by 420. This individualized work target was set during all subsequent experimental trials in an attempt to yield a completion time reflective of a 4-km track-cycling performance for a trained but subelite

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Alice M. Wallett, Amy L. Woods, Nathan Versey, Laura A. Garvican-Lewis, Marijke Welvaert and Kevin G. Thompson

In recent years, a number of studies have investigated the pacing strategies of 4000-m competitive track cycling events and laboratory-based cycling trials. 1 – 5 Therefore, a 4000-m time trial (TT), although not a proxy for other TT distances, provides a well-researched test with which to examine