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Amador García-Ramos, Francisco Luis Pestaña-Melero, Alejandro Pérez-Castilla, Francisco Javier Rojas and Guy Gregory Haff

is the ballistic variant of the BP. It is well documented that the BPT produces significantly greater force, velocity, power, and muscle activity than the traditional BP. 7 , 20 Therefore, it is of interest to determine the load–velocity relationship in all the variants of the BP exercise included

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Antonio Dello Iacono, Marco Beato and Israel Halperin

division of repetitions within a given set into small clusters (eg, 2–6) of repetitions (eg, 2–3) that are separated by brief rest periods (eg, 10–60 s). Cluster-set configuration allows subjects to maintain greater outputs of force, velocity, and mostly power at a given load when compared with traditional

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Carlos Marta, Ana R. Alves, Pedro T. Esteves, Natalina Casanova, Daniel Marinho, Henrique P. Neiva, Roberto Aguado-Jimenez, Alicia M. Alonso-Martínez, Mikel Izquierdo and Mário C. Marques

conditions ( 10 ). Accordingly, the present study aimed to determine the effects of ST versus traditional strength training on explosive strength in prepubescent boys. Methods Subjects The sample consisted of 57 prepubescent boys aged between 10 and 11 years old (from fifth and sixth grades) in a Portuguese

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Yong Wook Kim, Na Young Kim, Won Hyuk Chang and Sang Chul Lee

damaged sensory receptors and changed muscular adjustment patterns, trigger instability in postural balance and limited trunk movement adjustment. 6 The traditional stabilizing exercise interventions are successful at treating LBP; however, there is often recurrence of LBP that has been illustrated in

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Chi-Whan Choi, Jung-Wan Koo and Yeon-Gyu Jeong

° bench while side lying (TLBS), elevating the torso while standing on a 45° bench with the feet anchored; or wall side bridge (WSB), side-bridge exercises while standing against a wall despite a compromised shoulder, hip, or knee. 4 , 9 , 10 However, the comparative effects of these traditional side

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Chad Seifried, Chris Barnhill and J. Michael Martinez

resources, and (l) administration were developed individually, but combined eventually to help produce graduates for several decades in either traditional (i.e., core focused) or integrated (i.e., involving other disciplines) curricula that focus on issues of theoretical and/or practical significance

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Roland van den Tillaar, Erna von Heimburg and Guro Strøm Solli

frequently used exercise tests in exercise physiology and sport science. 5 The traditional and frequently used protocol to measure VO 2 max is the graded exercise test (GXT) performed as a fixed incremental stepwise test to exhaustion, typically performed on a motorized treadmill. 6 However, this

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Nancie H. Herbold, Bridget K. Visconti, Susan Frates and Linda Bandini

This study examined the traditional (single and multivitamin/mineral supplements) and nontraditional supplement (herbals, botanicals, and other biologic and nutrient supplements) use by female athletes. Frequency, reasons for use, and sources of supplement information were assessed with a self-report questionnaire. Participants were 162 collegiate female varsity athletes. More than half of all athletes used some type of supplement at least once a month (65.4%). Thirty-six percent (n = 58) of the sample used a multivitamin and mineral with iron. Twelve percent (n = 19) reported amino acid/protein supplement use and 17% (n = 29) used an herbal/botanical supplement. The most frequently cited reason for supplement use was “good health” (60.1%). A major source of information on supplements reported was family (53%). With the general rise in supplement use, nutrition education on the use of traditional and non-traditional supplements is warranted.

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Katherine Histen, Julia Arntsen, Lauren L’Hereux, James Heeren, Benjamin Wicki, Sterling Saint, Giselle Aerni, Craig R. Denegar and Michael F. Joseph


Tendon adapts to load through alterations in its composition and mechanical properties. Mechanical adaptation to increased load often involves increases in cross-sectional area (CSA), stiffness, and modulus. Runners exhibit these adaptations.


To determine if runners wearing minimalist shoes had larger and stiffer Achilles tendons (AT) than traditionally shod runners.


Cross-sectional study of well-trained, traditionally and minimally shod runners.


Laboratory assessment of trained runners.


23 men (11 traditional, 12 minimalist) and 8 women (6 traditional, 2 minimalist). Runners wearing minimalist shoes had 4.2 ± 1.6 y of training experience in minimalist shoes.

Main Outcome Measures:

The authors used diagnostic ultrasound and isokinetic dynamometry to generate a force-elongation curve and its derivatives.


Minimalist runners had a greater CSA: mean difference (MD) = 9.2 mm2, stiffness (MD = 268.1 N/mm), and modulus (MD = 202.9 MPa). ATs of minimalist runners experienced greater stress (MD 8.6 N/mm2) during maximal voluntary isometric contraction of the plantar-flexor muscles due to greater force of contraction (MD 798.9 N).


The AT in minimalist runners adapts by increasing size, stiffness, and modulus, which is consistent with our understanding of mechanical adaptation of tendon to increased loading. Increased stress to the AT likely requires a slow transition to minimalist running to allow the AT to adapt without evidence of injury.

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Jennifer E. Carter and Anita E. Kelly

This study explored the moderating effect of psychological reactance on the success of traditional and paradoxical mental imagery treatments that were aimed at reducing anxiety in athletes. Intramural college basketball players (N = 73) were recruited through advertisements for a free-throw contest, and their anxiety and free-throw performance were measured following treatment in one of three groups: confidence imagery, paradoxical imagery, or control. As predicted, in the paradoxical condition, high-reactant athletes reported having significantly lower somatic state anxiety and significantly higher state self-confidence than did low-reactant athletes. In contrast, high- and low-reactant athletes did not differ in their anxiety scores in both the confidence imagery and control conditions. Results suggested that reactance does moderate the effect of the success of traditional and paradoxical imagery treatments for reducing athletes’ anxiety.