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Nikola Grafnetterova

several retail companies, and now are looking for a new business venture. During one of your recent trips to Crimson , you came up with the idea to organize a trail running ultramarathon race to share with others the beauty of this small town and local trails. You hope the event will bring additional

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Simon J. de Waal, Josu Gomez-Ezeiza, Rachel E. Venter, and Robert P. Lamberts

Trail running, which is rapidly gaining popularity, differs from traditional road running in that >80% of the running is done on unpaved surfaces such as bush, gravel, and mountain trails. 1 , 2 Trail running circuits regularly include relatively steep uphill and/or downhill sections. In addition

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Alexandra M. Coates, Jordan A. Berard, Trevor J. King, and Jamie F. Burr

.3) hours for men and 6.4 (1.5) hours for women. The 80- and 160-km finishing times were 11.6 (1.8) and 25.2 (3.6) hours, respectively. Figure 1 —Finishing time (A) and percentage difference from winning time (B) across 50-km male (M), female (F), 80-km mixed-sex and 160-km mixed-sex trail-running races

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Frederic Sabater Pastor, Thibault Besson, Giorgio Varesco, Audrey Parent, Marie Fanget, Jérôme Koral, Clément Foschia, Thomas Rupp, Diana Rimaud, Léonard Féasson, and Guillaume Y. Millet

-hour treadmill run. 5 Furthermore, the percentage of velocity at V ˙ O 2 max sustained during the race was predicted by running economy. 5 In trail running, no relationships have been found between any physiological variables and performance in races longer than 24 hours. 6 , 7 Besides the above

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Jerome Koral, Marie Fanget, Laurianne Imbert, Thibault Besson, Djahid Kennouche, Audrey Parent, Clément Foschia, Jérémy Rossi, and Guillaume Y. Millet

Neuromuscular fatigue is usually defined as an exercise-induced decrease in the maximal isometric force and/or power output. 1 Yet, physical activities and sport performance such as trail running not only are based on the capacity to generate isometric forces but often depend on dynamic parameters

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Nicola Giovanelli, Lea Biasutti, Desy Salvadego, Hailu K. Alemayehu, Bruno Grassi, and Stefano Lazzer

Trail running is defined by the International Trail Running Association “[ . . . ]a pedestrian race open to all, in a natural environment (mountain, desert, forest, plain . . . ) with minimal possible paved or asphalt road [ . . . ]” ( ). The racecourses can reach and exceed 200 km of

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Volker Scheer, Tanja I. Janssen, Solveig Vieluf, and Hans-Christian Heitkamp

Trail running is a popular sport that has recently been recognized by the International Association of the Athletics Federations as a new running discipline hosting its own trail world championships ( ). It is therefore of interest to athletes, coaches, and researchers to find training

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Frederic Sabater-Pastor, Katja Tomazin, Grégoire P. Millet, Julien Verney, Léonard Féasson, and Guillaume Y. Millet

Trail running is a growing endurance sport that differs from road running in that >80% of the course must consist of unpaved surfaces such as trails or dirt roads. 1 However, the main difference between road- and trail-running races is often the elevation gain and loss, with average elevation

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James W. Navalta, Jeffrey Montes, Nathaniel G. Bodell, Charli D. Aguilar, Ana Lujan, Gabriela Guzman, Brandi K. Kam, Jacob W. Manning, and Mark DeBeliso

population is utilizing wearable technology. Among the most common leisure activities is hiking, which has seen participation increase almost 200 fold in recent years, and is one of the top two outdoor activities performed ( Cordell et al., 2005 ; Manning et al., 2015 ). Additionally, trail running has seen

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Craig A. Staunton, Mikael Swarén, Thomas Stöggl, Dennis-Peter Born, and Glenn Björklund

Trail running is a popular leisure activity and growing competitive sport, characterized by large positive and negative elevation changes. 1 , 2 In trail running, the majority of exercise is performed on uneven surfaces, consisting of dirt roads, gravel, and often includes sections with obstacles