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Louise M. Burke, John A. Hawley, Asker Jeukendrup, James P. Morton, Trent Stellingwerff and Ronald J. Maughan

periodized training cycle. May include single sessions of variants of “train high” and “train low” as well as sequences of these strategies (see below). • Training-nutrient interaction is achieved for each session to maximize the outcome of enhanced stimulus/adaptation from scenarios of low CHO availability

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Ida A. Heikura, Louise M. Burke, Dan Bergland, Arja L.T. Uusitalo, Antti A. Mero and Trent Stellingwerff

, there are different modalities of altitude exposure, with several common options being live high-train high (LHTH) or live high-train low (LHTL) with hypobaric or normobaric hypoxia, or intermittent hypoxic exposure at rest or during training. 2 Nevertheless, irrespective of changes in performance, a

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Randall L. Wilber and Yannis P. Pitsiladis

Since the 1968 Mexico City Olympics, Kenyan and Ethiopian runners have dominated the middle- and longdistance events in athletics and have exhibited comparable dominance in international cross-country and roadracing competition. Several factors have been proposed to explain the extraordinary success of the Kenyan and Ethiopian distance runners, including (1) genetic predisposition, (2) development of a high maximal oxygen uptake as a result of extensive walking and running at an early age, (3) relatively high hemoglobin and hematocrit, (4) development of good metabolic “economy/efficiency” based on somatotype and lower limb characteristics, (5) favorable skeletal-muscle-fiber composition and oxidative enzyme profile, (6) traditional Kenyan/Ethiopian diet, (7) living and training at altitude, and (8) motivation to achieve economic success. Some of these factors have been examined objectively in the laboratory and field, whereas others have been evaluated from an observational perspective. The purpose of this article is to present the current data relative to factors that potentially contribute to the unprecedented success of Kenyan and Ethiopian distance runners, including recent studies that examined potential links between Kenyan and Ethiopian genotype characteristics and elite running performance. In general, it appears that Kenyan and Ethiopian distance-running success is not based on a unique genetic or physiological characteristic. Rather, it appears to be the result of favorable somatotypical characteristics lending to exceptional biomechanical and metabolic economy/efficiency; chronic exposure to altitude in combination with moderate-volume, high-intensity training (live high + train high), and a strong psychological motivation to succeed athletically for the purpose of economic and social advancement.

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Roberto Baldassarre, Marco Bonifazi, Romain Meeusen and Maria Francesca Piacentini

season, athletes performed 1 altitude-training camp, adopting a live high-train high methodology (Johannesburg 1800 m). For the specific preparation of the Olympic Games (OG), athlete n. 5 performed a second live-high–train-high training camp (La Loma, 1900 m) 27 days prior to the OG, whereas athletes n

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Philo U. Saunders, Laura A. Garvican-Lewis, Robert F. Chapman and Julien D. Périard

( Lundby & Robach, 2016 ; Millet et al., 2017 ), much of the attention now has turned to the optimization of each method. Traditional altitude training methods (classical/traditional/live high:train high [LHTH]), born out of the routine practice of altitude natives, involve living and training

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Trent Stellingwerff, James P. Morton and Louise M. Burke

signaling (e.g., AMPK, p53, PGC-1α) pathways thus leading to increases in the adaptive response to the session. The sleep-low train low model has been associated with improved exercise performance in trained triathletes. Bartlett et al. ( 2013 ); Marquet et al. ( 2016 ); Pilegaard et al. ( 2005 ) Train high

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Avish P. Sharma, Philo U. Saunders, Laura A. Garvican-Lewis, Brad Clark, Marijke Welvaert, Christopher J. Gore and Kevin G. Thompson

window to race postaltitude training is very individual and may not necessarily conform to prior recommendations regarding timing of competition postaltitude training. 2 , 5 , 19 Performance The combination of intensified training and 3 weeks of live high–train high (LHTH) at 1600 or 1800 m elicited a ∼1

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Ashleigh J. Sowle, Sarah L. Francis, Jennifer A. Margrett, Mack C. Shelley and Warren D. Franke

Kinect Sports ™ • Led by younger adult trainersHigh school and college-aged students (16-26 years) who led the onsite physical activity sessions ○ Provided intergenerational component Weeks 1-2 • 30 min exergaming activity twice weekly • 30 min interactive games (e.g., crossword, have you ever, etc

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Iñigo Mujika, Shona Halson, Louise M. Burke, Gloria Balagué and Damian Farrow

sequencing of (1) a “train high” high-quality training session, (2) overnight or within-day CHO restriction (sleep low), and (3) a moderate-intensity workout undertaken without CHO intake and, in the case of a morning session, after an overnight fast (train low). Indeed, superior training adaptation and

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Tyler W.D. Muddle, David H. Fukuda, Ran Wang, Joshua J. Riffe, David D. Church, Kyle S. Beyer, Jay R. Hoffman and Jeffrey R. Stout

short-term (4 weeks) ballistic training in trained high school athletes . Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 17 ( 3 ), 556 – 560 . PubMed Iglesias , E. , Clavel , I. , Dopico , J. , & Tuimil , J. ( 2003 ). Acute effect of the specific effort of judo on different strength