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Ryan G. Overmayer and Matthew W. Driller

/or subsequent performance. Although ISPC has been examined in cycling settings, studies have failed to examine these effects in trained cyclists, limiting the ecological validity of their results. Therefore, the current study aimed to examine the impact of ISPC on trained cyclists, when implemented between a

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Jason R. Boynton, Fabian Danner, Paolo Menaspà, Jeremiah J. Peiffer and Chris R. Abbiss

performance in a well-trained cyclist population. Galloway and Maughan 2 examined the time to exhaustion under a range of T A , but of note, the mean maximal oxygen consumption (VO 2 max) for these subjects (∼56 mL/kg/min) was below what the literature would consider “well-trained” endurance athletes. 15

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Fernando Klitzke Borszcz, Artur Ferreira Tramontin and Vitor Pereira Costa

by body weight, the parameters were statistically significant ( P  < .05) and large to very large greater ( d  = 1.73–2.76) in the WT group in relation to the T group. Table 1 Parameters Determined During the Incremental Test, FTP 20 Protocol, and MLSS Parameter All cyclists Well-trained cyclists

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Emma K. Zadow, James W. Fell, Cecilia M. Kitic, Jia Han and Sam S. X. Wu

cycling time trial (TT) in recreationally trained cyclists. Although overall performance (as measured by the time taken to complete the TT) was 6.9% quicker in the evening versus the morning, pacing did not differ significantly over the 2 time points. Within this study, pacing was observed to consist of

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Joseph A. McQuillan, Julia R. Casadio, Deborah K. Dulson, Paul B. Laursen and Andrew E. Kilding

environments. Given that athletes are often exposed to hot environments during competition, further studies are required to ascertain whether the previously reported favorable effects of NO 3 − consumption are maintained in hot conditions. Therefore, the aims of this study involving well-trained cyclists

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Keely Shaw, Jyotpal Singh, Luke Sirant, J. Patrick Neary and Philip D. Chilibeck

and the prefrontal cortex during exercise at simulated (normobaric) altitude while enhancing energy metabolism (evidenced by enhanced blood glucose stability and decreased blood lactate). It was hypothesized that these beneficial effects will result in improved TT performance in trained cyclists

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Andrew R. Coggan, Robert J. Spina, Wendy M. Kohrt, Dennis M. Bier and John O. Holloszy

We hypothesized that when plasma glucose availability is maintained by carbohydrate (CHO) ingestion, trained cyclists can utilize plasma glucose at very high rates during the later stages of prolonged exercise (10). To test this hypothesis, a well-trained male cyclist was studied during exercise to fatigue at 70% VO2max when ingesting glucose throughout exercise. A primed continuous infusion of [U-13C]glucose was begun after 60 min of exercise to measure rates of plasma glucose appearance (Ra), disappearance (Rd), and oxidation (Rox). Ra and Rd rose progressively throughout exercise, peaking at 6.85 and 6.99 mmollmin, respectively, at fatigue (i.e., 133 min). Most (93%) of this glucose was oxidized; during the final 30 min of exercise, Rox, averaged 6.10 mmollmin and accounted for approximately half of total CHO oxidation. These results support the hypothesis that trained cyclists can oxidize plasma glucose at very high rates during the later stages of prolonged exercise when fed CHO.

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Joseph A. McQuillan, Deborah K. Dulson, Paul B. Laursen and Andrew E. Kilding

We aimed to compare the effects of two different dosing durations of dietary nitrate (NO3 -) supplementation on 1 and 4 km cycling time-trial performance in highly trained cyclists. In a double-blind crossover-design, nine highly trained cyclists ingested 140ml of NO3 --rich beetroot juice containing ~8.0mmol [NO3 -], or placebo, for seven days. Participants completed a range of laboratory-based trials to quantify physiological and perceptual responses and cycling performance: time-trials on day 3 and 6 (4km) and on day 4 and 7 (1km) of the supplementation period. Relative to placebo, effects following 3- and 4-days of NO3 - supplementation were unclear for 4 (-0.8; 95% CL, ± 2.8%, p = .54) and likely harmful for 1km (-1.9; ± 2.5% CL, p = .17) time-trial mean power. Effects following 6- and 7-days of NO3 - supplementation resulted in unclear effects for 4 (0.1; ± 2.2% CL, p = .93) and 1km (-0.9; ± 2.6%CL, p = .51) time-trial mean power. Relative to placebo, effects for 40, 50, and 60% peak power output were unclear for economy at days 3 and 6 of NO3 - supplementation (p > .05). Dietary NO3 - supplementation appears to be detrimental to 1km time-trial performance in highly trained cyclists after 4-days. While, extending NO3 - dosing to ≥ 6-days reduced the magnitude of harm in both distances, overall performance in short duration cycling time-trials did not improve relative to placebo.

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Samuel T. Howe, Phillip M. Bellinger, Matthew W. Driller, Cecilia M. Shing and James W. Fell

Beta-alanine may benefit short-duration, high-intensity exercise performance. The aim of this randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study was to examine the effects of beta-alanine supplementation on aspects of muscular performance in highly trained cyclists. Sixteen highly trained cyclists (mean ± SD; age = 24 ± 7 yr; mass = 70 ± 7kg; VO2max = 67 ± 4ml·kg−1·min–1) supplemented with either beta-alanine (n = 8, 65 mg·kg−1BM) or a placebo (n = 8; dextrose monohydrate) over 4 weeks. Pre- and postsupplementation cyclists performed a 4-minute maximal cycling test to measure average power and 30 reciprocal maximal isokinetic knee contractions at a fixed angular velocity of 180°·sec−1 to measure average power/repetition, total work done (TWD), and fatigue index (%). Blood pH, lactate (La) and bicarbonate (HCO3 -) concentrations were measured preand postisokinetic testing at baseline and following the supplementation period. Beta-alanine supplementation was 44% likely to increase average power output during the 4-minute cycling time trial when compared with the placebo, although this was not statistically significant (p = .25). Isokinetic average power/repetition was significantly increased post beta-alanine supplementation compared with placebo (beta-alanine: 6.8 ± 9.9W, placebo: –4.3 ± 9.5 W, p = .04, 85% likely benefit), while fatigue index was significantly reduced (p = .03, 95% likely benefit). TWD was 89% likely to be improved following beta-alanine supplementation; however, this was not statistically significant (p = .09). There were no significant differences in blood pH, lactate, and HCO3 between groups (p > .05). Four weeks of beta-alanine supplementation resulted in worthwhile changes in time-trial performance and short-duration muscular force production in highly trained cyclists.

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Bent R. Rønnestad, Gunnar Slettaløkken Falch and Stian Ellefsen

Postactivation-potentiation exercise with added whole-body vibration (WBV) has been suggested as a potential way to acutely improve sprint performance. In cycling, there are many competitions and situations where sprinting abilities are important.


To investigate the effect of adding WBV to warm-up procedures on subsequent cycle sprint performance.


Eleven well-trained cyclists participated in the study. All cyclists performed a familiarization session before 2 separate test sessions in randomized order. Each session included a standardized warm-up followed by 1 of the following preconditioning exercises: 30 s of half-squats without WBV or 30 s of half-squats with WBV at 40 Hz. A 15-s Wingate sprint was performed 1 min after the preconditioning exercise.


Performing preconditioning exercise with WBV at 40 Hz resulted in superior peak power output compared with preconditioning exercise without WBV (1413 ± 257 W vs 1353 ± 213 W, P = .04) and a tendency toward superior mean power output during a 15-second all-out sprint (850 ± 119 W vs 828 ± 101 W, P = .08). Effect sizes showed a moderate practical effect of WBV vs no WBV on both peak and mean power output.


Preconditioning exercise performed with WBV at 40 Hz seems to have a positive effect on cycling sprint performance in young well-trained cyclists. This suggests that athletes can incorporate body-loaded squats with WBV in preparations to specific sprint training to improve the quality of the sprint training and also to improve sprint performance in relevant competitions.