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Samuel R. Heaselgrave, Joe Blacker, Benoit Smeuninx, James McKendry and Leigh Breen

significantly between each group (Figure  1 ), whereby HIGH > MOD > LOW at every time point (weeks 1–6; P  < .05 for all). Training volume did not significantly change over the 6-week intervention for LOW but did increase weekly from week 3 onward for MOD and HIGH only ( P  < .05), with the exception of week 6

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Joanne E. Richards, Timothy R. Ackland and Bruce C. Elliott

Thirty-seven females, aged initially between 10 and 13.5 years, completed a mixed longitudinal study over 3.3 years to investigate the effect of training volume and growth upon gymnastic performance. Gymnasts undergoing high volume training (mean = 30 hrs/week: Group 1) and moderate volume training (mean = 15 hrs/week: Group 2) were tested at 4-month intervals on growth measures including height, mass, skinfolds, and segment lengths, as well as the strength of lower limb, upper limb, and trunk musculature. Functional gymnastic development was observed through the assessment of generic, whole body rotation tasks, a vertical jump, and a v-sit action. The high training volume gymnasts were significantly smaller but markedly stronger than those gymnasts in Group 2 despite the size disadvantage. Consequently, Group 1 gymnasts were able to produce higher velocities for front and backward rotations and a faster v-sit action. These training group differences remained significant after initial size differences were taken into account via an analysis of covariance.

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Jorunn Sundgot-Borgen

This study examined clinical and subclinical eating disorders (EDs) in young Norwegian modern rhythmic gymnasts. Subjects were 12 members of the national team, age 13-20 years, and individually matched nonathletic controls. All subjects participated in a structured clinical interview for EDs, medical examination, and dietary analysis. Two of the gymnasts met the DSM-III-R criteria for anorexia nervosa, and 2 met the criteria for anorexia athletica (a subclinical ED). AH the gymnasts were dieting in spite of the fact that they were all extremely lean. The avoidance of maturity, menstrual irregularities, energy deficit, high training volume, and high frequency of injuries were common features among the gymnasts. There is a need to learn more about risk factors and the etiology of EDs in different sports. Coaches, parents, and athletes need more information about principles of proper nutrition and methods to achieve ideal body composition for optimal health and athletic performance.

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Mathieu Lacome, Simon Avrillon, Yannick Cholley, Ben Michael Simpson, Gael Guilhem and Martin Buchheit

Aim:

To compare the effect of low- vs. high-volume of eccentric-biased hamstring training programs on knee-flexor strength and fascicle length changes in elite soccer players.

Methods:

Nineteen elite youth soccer players took part in this study and were randomly assigned into two subgroups. For 6 weeks in-season, groups performed either a low (1 set per exercise; 10 reps in total) or a high (4 sets; 40 reps) volume eccentric training of their knee flexors. After 6 weeks (MID), players cross-overed and performed the alternate training regimen. Each training set consisted in 4 repetitions of the Nordic hamstring exercise and 6 repetitions of the bilateral stiff-leg deadlift. Eccentric knee-flexor strength (Nordbord) as well as biceps femoris long head (BFlh) and semimembranosus (SM) fascicle length (scanned with ultrasound scanner) were assessed during PRE, MID- and POST-training tests.

Results:

Knee-flexor eccentric strength very likely increased from PRE to MID (+11.3±7.8% [low-volume] and 11.4±5.3% [high-volume]), with a possibly-to-likely increase in BFlh (+4.5±5.0% and 4.8±2.5%) and SM (+4.3±4.7% and 6.3±6.3%) fascicle length in both groups. There was no substantial changes between MID and POST. Overall, there was no clear between-group difference in the changes from PRE to MID and MID to POST for neither knee-flexor eccentric strength, BFlH nor SM fascicle length.

Conclusion:

Low-volume knee-flexor eccentric training is as effective as a greater training dose to substantially improve knee-flexor strength and fascicle length in-season in young elite soccer players. Low-volume is however likely more appropriate to be used in an elite team facing congested schedules.

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Dean Ritchie, Will G. Hopkins, Martin Buchheit, Justin Cordy and Jonathan D. Bartlett

Context:

Training volume, intensity, and distribution are important factors during periods of return to play.

Purpose:

To quantify the effect of injury on training load (TL) before and after return to play (RTP) in professional Australian Rules football.

Methods:

Perceived training load (RPE-TL) for 44 players was obtained for all indoor and outdoor training sessions, while field-based training was monitored via GPS (total distance, high-speed running, mean speed). When a player sustained a competition time-loss injury, weekly TL was quantified for 3 wk before and after RTP. General linear mixed models, with inference about magnitudes standardized by between-players SDs, were used to quantify effects of lower- and upper-body injury on TL compared with the team.

Results:

While total RPE-TL was similar to the team 2 wk before RTP, training distribution was different, whereby skills RPE-TL was likely and most likely lower for upper- and lower-body injury, respectively, and most likely replaced with small to very large increases in running and other conditioning load. Weekly total distance and high-speed running were most likely moderately to largely reduced for lower- and upper-body injury until after RTP, at which point total RPE-TL, training distribution, total distance, and high-speed running were similar to the team. Mean speed of field-based training was similar before and after RTP compared with the team.

Conclusions:

Despite injured athletes’ obtaining comparable TLs to uninjured players, training distribution is different until after RTP, indicating the importance of monitoring all types of training that athletes complete.

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Heather K. Larson, Bradley W. Young, Tara-Leigh F. McHugh and Wendy M. Rodgers

training volume, from ages 6 to 12 years. Athlete Burnout Questionnaire The Athlete Burnout Questionnaire ( Raedeke & Smith, 2001 ) measures three dimensions (emotional/physical exhaustion, reduced sense of accomplishment, and sport devaluation) with five items each. Swimmers were presented with statements

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Jason Brandenburg and David Docherty

Purpose:

To examine the acute response to 2 resistance-exercise protocols performed to repetition failure, but different in load configuration, and determine whether the acute response was related to strength increases after 8 weeks of training.

Methods:

Eighteen resistance-trained men completed a single session of 2 resistance-exercise protocols. The constant-load protocol (CL) required subjects to complete 3 sets of single-arm preacher curls (elbow flexion) to failure using a load of ~77% 1RM. The reduced-load protocol (RL) was similar, but training load was reduced for the second and third sets. Maximal isometric force (MVIC) and blood lactate were assessed preprotocol and postprotocol to determine the acute response. For the 8-week training phase, subjects (N = 12) were divided into 2 programs, each corresponsing to 1 of the protocols. Strength was measured before and after training.

Results:

MVIC decreased from 106.2 ± 13.8 to 84.3 ± 12.1 N · m and from 109.1 ± 14.7 to 82.5 ± 13 N · m after the CL and RL protocols, respectively. The decrements in MVIC were significant (P < .001), with the decline after RL tending to be greater (P = .051). Postprotocol blood lactate concentrations after CL and RL were 3.4 ± 1.1 and 4.1 ± 1.3 mmol/L, respectively, with greater increases after RL (P = .036). Similar and significant 1RM strength increases were observed after both programs (from 20.7 ± 2.7 to 23.3 ± 3.5 kg after CL and from 22.4 ± 2.9 to 25.5 ± 3.2 kg after RL; P < .001).

Conclusion:

The similar increases in strength suggest that either the greater acute response to RL was not related to the increases in strength or a minimal (threshold) response was achieved during both programs.

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Helmi Chaabene and Yassine Negra

Purpose:

To assess and compare the effects of 8 wk of in-season (2 sessions/wk) low- and high-volume plyometric training (PT) on measures of physical fitness in prepubertal male soccer players.

Methods:

A total of 25 soccer players were randomly assigned to a low-volume PT group (LPT; n = 13, age 12.68 ± 0.23 y, age at peak height velocity [APHV] 14.25 ± 0.29 y, maturity offset –1.57 ± 0.29 y) or a high-volume PT group (HPT; n = 12, age 12.72 ± 0.27 y, APHV 14.33 ± 0.77 y, maturity offset –1.61 ± 0.76 y). A linear-sprint test (5-m, 10-m, 20-m, and 30-m), change-of-direction (CoD) test, and vertical- (squat-jump [SJ]), countermovement- (CMJ), and horizontal-jump (standing long jump [SLJ]) test were carried out before and after 8 wk of PT.

Results:

There was a significant main effect of time for sprint outcomes (5-m, P = .005, ES = 0.86; 10-m, P = .006, ES = 0.85; 20-m, P = .03, ES = 0.64, and 30-m, P = .05, ES = 0.57), CoD (P = .002, ES = 0.96), SJ (P = .008, ES = 0.81; CMJ, P = .01, ES = 0.73), and SLJ ability (P = .007, ES = 0.83). There were no significant training group × time interactions in any measured outcomes.

Conclusions:

After 8 wk of training, results showed similar performance improvement on measures of sprint time, CoD, and jumping ability between LPT and HPT groups. From a time-efficiency perspective, it is recommended to use LPT in prepubertal male soccer players to improve their proxies of athletic performance.

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Miguel Sánchez-Moreno, David Rodríguez-Rosell, Fernando Pareja-Blanco, Ricardo Mora-Custodio and Juan José González-Badillo

) evaluate an athlete’s strength without the need to perform 1RM or XRM tests; (2) determine the %1RM that is being used as soon as the first repetition with a given load is performed with maximal voluntary velocity. 5 Training volume is another important variable for configuring the training load in RT

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Harry G. Banyard, James J. Tufano, Jose Delgado, Steve W. Thompson and Kazunori Nosaka

research has individualized training volume prescription (number of repetitions per set), 9 – 11 but, notably, no research has used velocity to individualize training load prescription (load–velocity relationship). Additionally, participants within these studies have used a Smith machine and not a large