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David L. Carey, Justin Crow, Kok-Leong Ong, Peter Blanch, Meg E. Morris, Ben J. Dascombe, and Kay M. Crossley

Training-load prescription in team-sport athletes is a balance between performance improvement 1 , 2 and injury-risk reduction. 3 – 6 The manipulation of training intensity, duration, and frequency to induce improvements in athletic performance is a fundamental objective of training

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Franco M. Impellizzeri, Samuele M. Marcora, and Aaron J. Coutts

The concepts of internal and external training load were first presented at the Eighth Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science in Salzburg, Austria (2003) 1 at an invited session and symposium organized by Tom Reilly. The content of this presentation was included in 2 follow

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Thiago S. Duarte, Danilo L. Alves, Danilo R. Coimbra, Bernardo Miloski, João C. Bouzas Marins, and Maurício G. Bara Filho

The training process aims to promote specific and positive adaptations to increase sports performance. 1 – 4 In this sense, the correct application of training loads and monitoring of athletes’ responses are essential to make the necessary adjustments in the periodization of training and adapt to

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Øyvind Sandbakk, Thomas Haugen, and Gertjan Ettema

Training load management is crucial for the optimization of athlete training responses, competition readiness, and minimizing the risk of injury, illness, and nonfunctional overreaching. 1 Training load is traditionally determined by a series of components, such as training volume (duration

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Håvard Wiig, Thor Einar Andersen, Live S. Luteberget, and Matt Spencer

Monitoring and managing training load may assist to achieve the desired training outcome 1 and reduce injury risk. 2 , 3 However, quantifying training load accurately and reliably is challenging in team sports due to the complexity of movements and actions, and the constant shifting intensities

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Luka Svilar, Julen Castellano, Igor Jukic, and David Casamichana

load has received a lot of attention in recent years 2 , 3 due to its important role in improving performance and mitigating injuries. 4 Accurate monitoring of the training load provides the coach with a better understanding of individual tolerance to training 5 and provides a solid basis for optimal

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Davide Ferioli, Andrea Bosio, Johann C. Bilsborough, Antonio La Torre, Michele Tornaghi, and Ermanno Rampinini

The quantification of training load (TL) is a common practice in basketball, with the aim to ensure that players achieve an adequate training stimulus and to reduce the negative consequences of training (ie, risk of injury and nonfunctional overreaching) and the chances of undertraining. 1 , 2 The

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Jeroen de Bruijn, Henk van der Worp, Mark Korte, Astrid de Vries, Rick Nijland, and Michel Brink

ranges from a few weeks to several months, one can easily imagine that an injury seriously affects a player’s aerobic fitness. 9 Fortunately, the negative effects of detraining on aerobic performance can be reversed by endurance training. 10 To accomplish this, training loads during the rehabilitation

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James J. Malone, Arne Jaspers, Werner Helsen, Brenda Merks, Wouter G.P. Frencken, and Michel S. Brink

, tactical and small-sided game drills). Therefore, the training load reference values that have been previously detailed for outfield players 4 would not be applicable for GKs. The quantification of external training load is crucial to understand the training process. However, it is equally as important to

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Anis Aloulou, Francois Duforez, Damien Léger, Quentin De Larochelambert, and Mathieu Nedelec

/competition schedules, 13 and training loads. 14 , 15 Previous studies have reported very low sleep durations (approximately 05:30) among swimmers, which may be explained by the trend toward early morning training sessions for this sport. 12 , 13 Moreover, later bedtimes (approximately +57 min) and longer sleep