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Kristie-Lee Taylor, John Cronin, Nicholas D. Gill, Dale W. Chapman, and Jeremy Sheppard


This investigation aimed to quantify the typical variation for kinetic and kinematic variables measured during loaded jump squats.


Thirteen professional athletes performed six maximal effort countermovement jumps on four occasions. Testing occurred over 2 d, twice per day (8 AM and 2 PM) separated by 7 d, with the same procedures replicated on each occasion. Jump height, peak power (PP), relative peak power (RPP), mean power (MP), peak velocity (PV), peak force (PF), mean force (MF), and peak rate of force development (RFD) measurements were obtained from a linear optical encoder attached to a 40 kg barbell.


A diurnal variation in performance was observed with afternoon values displaying an average increase of 1.5–5.6% for PP, RPP, MP, PV, PF, and MF when compared with morning values (effect sizes ranging from 0.2–0.5). Day to day reliability was estimated by comparing the morning trials (AM reliability) and the afternoon trials (PM reliability). In both AM and PM conditions, all variables except RFD demonstrated coefficients of variations ranging between 0.8–6.2%. However, for a number of variables (RPP, MP, PV and height), AM reliability was substantially better than PM. PF and MF were the only variables to exhibit a coefficient of variation less than the smallest worthwhile change in both conditions.


Results suggest that power output and associated variables exhibit a diurnal rhythm, with improved performance in the afternoon. Morning testing may be preferable when practitioners are seeking to conduct regular monitoring of an athlete’s performance due to smaller variability.

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Andrew M. Murray, Joong Hyun Ryu, John Sproule, Anthony P. Turner, Phil Graham-Smith, and Marco Cardinale


Running performance is influenced by the interaction of biomechanical and physiological factors. Miniaturized accelerometers worn by athletes can be used to quantify mechanical aspects of running and as a noninvasive tool to assess training status and progression. The aim of this study was to define and validate a method to assess running regularity and allow the estimation of an individual’s oxygen uptake (V̇O2) and/or blood lactate—[La]b—based on data collected with accelerometers and heart rate.


Male adolescent endurance athletes completed an incremental submaximal aerobic stage test where V̇O2 and [La]b were measured. The test was terminated when [La]b concentration at the end of the stage exceeded 4 mmol/L. Two wireless triaxial accelerometers were placed on participants’ right shank and lower back throughout the test. The root mean square (RMS) and sample entropy (SampEn) were calculated for the vertical, mediolateral, and anteroposterior components of acceleration.


There were significant positive correlations of acceleration and entropy variables with [La]b and V̇O2, with moderate to high coefficients (r = .43–.87). RMS of the shank acceleration was the most highly related with both physiological variables. When the accelerometer was attached on the trunk, SampEn of the vertical acceleration had the strongest relationship with V̇O2 (r = .76, P < .01).


The described method analyzing running complexity may allow an assessment of gait variability, which noninvasively tracks V̇O2 and/or [La]b, allowing monitoring of fatigue or training readiness for trained adolescent individuals.

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Christopher J. Stevens, Megan L.R. Ross, Amelia J. Carr, Brent Vallance, Russ Best, Charles Urwin, Julien D. Périard, and Louise Burke

significant improvements in perceived sleep quality, muscle soreness, fatigue, or training readiness globally across the camp, or on the days immediately following the HWI intervention sessions (Table  2 ), there were significantly higher self-reported scores for general health and mood in HWI participants

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Félix Croteau, Shawn M. Robbins, and David Pearsall

  2 ). Eccentric protocols were avoided to minimize impact on training readiness because they induce the most muscle soreness. 5 A warm-up of 5 repetitions was done concentrically for the shoulder internal and external rotators. After a 1-minute break, testing followed for one set of 3 consecutive

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Amélie Apinis-Deshaies, Maxime Trempe, and Jonathan Tremblay

with lower mood and increased muscle soreness, which could affect the training readiness. 22 Consequently, our data suggest that monitoring TL in conjunction with well-being appears helpful in identifying possible sleep disturbances. Practitioners can then consider implementing sleep hygiene

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Adrien Vachon, Nicolas Berryman, Iñigo Mujika, Jean-Baptiste Paquet, and Laurent Bosquet

; C, cardiovascular training; N, neuromuscular training; reps, repetition; T, technical and tactical training. *Different from training block average ( P  < .05). **Different from training block average ( P  < .01). To assess training readiness, athletes completed a psychometric questionnaire (Profile

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Samuel Ryan, Thomas Kempton, and Aaron J. Coutts

Athlete-monitoring systems are commonly used in professional sport to provide insights into athlete training readiness and injury risk. 1 In the case of professional team sports such as Australian football (AF), readiness refers to a player’s ability to complete planned training activities with no

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Craig Thomas, Helen Jones, Craig Whitworth-Turner, and Julien Louis

impact postmatch recovery and, subsequently, the training readiness of core players. 14 Taken together, these findings may provide a rationale to prioritize the sleep hygiene of core players over fringe players postmatch. Given that the bedtime of core players was later on the night after a match, a

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Olivier Girard, Benjamin D. Levine, Robert F. Chapman, and Randall Wilber

level where the training was supervised and familiarization with testing procedures took place. This was then followed by 4 weeks of training at sea level where all athletes trained together to bring them up to an equivalent degree of training readiness, and account for any potential “training camp

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Siobhan B. Mitchell, Anne M. Haase, and Sean P. Cumming

your development in comparison to your classmates? Why?” In order to explore psychological factors and physical characteristics associated with success and healthy adaptation in adult ballet dancers, implications of pubertal change were considered, “How did those changes impact upon your training/readiness