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Morteza Sadeghi, Gholamali Ghasemi and Mohammadtaghi Karimi

be used for a long period of time and on a regular basis so that they will have positive effects. One of the exercises which have been prescribed for SCI individuals recently is the use of the trampoline, which is also known as rebound therapy. Based on the results of various studies, rebound therapy

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Michelle Seanor, Robert J. Schinke, Natalia B. Stambulova, Kristoffer Henriksen, Dave Ross and Cole Giffin

. older athletes). Researchers have been prompted by these nuanced findings to employ case studies in sports including sailing, track and field, kayaking ( Henriksen & Stambulova, 2017 ), soccer ( Larsen, Alfermann, Henriksen, & Christensen, 2013 ), and trampoline ( Seanor, Schinke, Stambulova, Ross

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Ross H. Sanders

This study was designed to investigate the effect of ability on technique in the forward somersault with half twist (Barani) and the forward somersault with one and one half twists (Rudi) on the trampoline. Eleven trampolinists ranging in ability from elite (national representative) to early intermediate (regional representative) were analyzed using three-dimensional analysis techniques. Cumulative twist angle, rate of twist, angle of tilt of the twist axis, chest rotation, hip angle, and hip lateral flexion angle were measured. Characteristics of the arm actions were also assessed using an internal frame of reference. To generate twist in the Baranis, trampolinists tilted the axis between 5° and 14°; the amount of tilt was inversely related to ability (p < .05). In the Rudis, subjects tilted the axis between 15° and 23° using more asymmetrical arm actions and larger and more rapid hip extensions, hip lateral flexions, and chest rotations than in the Baranis. The timing and magnitude of the actions differed among the subjects and were related to ability.

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Katrina M. Moss, Annette J. Dobson, Kimberley L. Edwards, Kylie D. Hesketh, Yung-Ting Chang and Gita D. Mishra

/racquets/golf clubs, climbing equipment/trees, scooter/bicycle/tricycle, skateboard/ripstik, skipping rope, swimming pool, trampoline, and slide/swing. Mothers also reported the presence of 4 types of electronic play equipment in the child’s bedroom (television, computer/electronic games, mobile electronic device

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Donald C. Leigh and Wei-Yang Lu

The dynamical interactions in tennis between ball, strings, and racket, during ball impact and immediately after, are modeled by a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations that include both damping and elastic properties. During impact, the time history of the deflections, velocities, and forces in all parts of the system were calculated. Some simple experiments were done to determine the elastic and damping properties of the ball and strings, and to verify the theory in the case of a ball rebounding from the strings of a clamped racket head. Among the findings is that there is a trampoline effect even for a clamped racket head. Most interesting is that the rebound velocity of the ball can be increased, the mechanical energy transmitted to the racket can be reduced, and the maximum force transmitted to the holder of the racket can be reduced, all by increasing the damping in the racket.

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Mitchell L. Cordova, Lisa S. Jutte and J. Ty Hopkins

Many types of rehabilitation exercises are used to reestablish lower extremity neuromuscular function and strength following ankle injuries. It has not been established which exercise induces the greatest leg muscle activity, which might allow patients to recover more quickly from their injuries. The purpose of this investigation was to establish which exercises induce the most muscle activity in the medial gastrocnemius (MG), peroneus longus (PL), and tibialis anterior (TA), as measured by integrated electromyography (I-EMG). Participants (N = 24, age = 22 ± .59, mass = 63.5 ± 2.1 kg, ht = 165.7 ± 1.2 cm) conducted five repetitions of each of four exercise conditions for 30 s: one-legged stance (OLS), OLS on trampoline (OLST), T-Band kicks (TBK), and OLS perturbations (OLSP). It was found that the TBK exercise induces greater I-EMG in all three muscles, the OLST exercise stimulates more I-EMG activity in the MG and TA, and the OLSP exercise induces greater I-EMG activity in the TA.

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Babett H. Lobinger, Martin K. Klämpfl and Eckart Altenmüller

Paradoxical performance can be described simply as a sudden decrease in a top athlete’s performance despite the athlete’s having striven for superior performance, such as the lost-skill syndrome in trampolining or “the yips” in golf. There is a growing amount of research on these phenomena, which resemble movement disorders. What appears to be missing, however, is a clear phenomenology of the affected movement characteristics leading to a classification of the underlying cause. This understanding may enable specific diagnostic methods and appropriate interventions. We first review the different phenomena, providing an overview of their characteristics and their occurrence in sports and describing the affected sports and movements. We then analyze explanations for the yips, the most prominent phenomenon, and review the methodological approaches for diagnosing and treating it. Finally, we present and elaborate an action theoretical approach for diagnosing paradoxical performance and applying appropriate interventions.

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Niina Lintu, Kai Savonen, Anna Viitasalo, Tuomo Tompuri, Jussi Paananen, Mika P. Tarvainen and Timo Lakka

Background:

There are few studies on determinants of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) among girls and boys separately in population samples of children.

Methods:

We therefore investigated the determinants of CRF, assessed by maximal workload per height using allometric scaling, in a population sample of 162 girls and 177 boys aged 6 to 8 years. We used automated bootstrap feature selection and linear regression models.

Results:

The strongest determinants of CRF among girls were maximal heart rate (HR; standardized regression coefficient [β] = 0.31, P < .001), unsupervised physical activity (β = 0.29, P < .001), lean body mass (β = 0.23, P = .001), and errors in static balance test (β = –0.16, P = .02), accounting altogether for 25.7% of variation in CRF. In boys, unsupervised physical activity (β = 0.24, P < .001), resting HR (β = –0.25, P < .001), hand grip strength (β = 0.21, P = .001), errors in static balance test (β = –0.16, P = .01), organized football (β = 0.16, P = .01), and unsupervised trampoline jumping (β = 0.14, P = .04) were the strongest determinants of CRF, accounting altogether for 29.7% of variation in CRF.

Conclusions:

These findings suggest that unsupervised physical activity is sufficient in improving CRF in both sexes. Furthermore, larger muscle mass and better balance are associated with higher CRF that has to be taken into account when assessing CRF using maximal cycle ergometer exercise test among children.

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Jan M. Hondzinski and Warren G. Darling

Experiments were designed to examine the visual contributions to performance of back aerial double somersaults by collegiate acrobats. Somersaults were performed on a trampoline under three visual conditions: (a) NORMAL acuity; (b) REDUCED acuity (subjects wore special contacts that blocked light reflected onto the central retina); and (c) NO VISION. Videotaped skill performances were rated by two NCAA judges and digitized for kinematic analyses. Subjects' performance scores were similar in NORMAL and REDUCED conditions and lowest in the NO VISION condition. Control of body movement, indicated by time-to-contact, was most variable in the NO VISION condition. Profiles of angular head and neck velocity revealed that when subjects could see, they slowed their heads prior to touchdown in time to process optical flow information and prepare for landing. There was not always enough time to process vision associated with object identification and prepare for touchdown. It was concluded that collegiate acrobats do not need to identify objects for their best back aerial double somersault performance.

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Thomas Heinen

The goal of this study was to investigate the visual spotting hypothesis in 10 experts and 10 apprentices as they perform back aerial somersaults from a standing position with no preparatory jumps (short flight duration condition) and after some preparatory jumps with a flight time of 1s (long flight duration condition). Differences in gaze behavior and kinematics were expected between experts and apprentices and between experimental conditions. Gaze behavior was measured using a portable and wireless eye-tracking system in combination with a movement-analysis system. Experts exhibited a smaller landing deviation from the middle of the trampoline bed than apprentices. Experts showed higher fixation ratios during the take-off and flight phase. Experts exhibited no blinks in any of the somersaults in both conditions, whereas apprentices showed significant blink ratios in both experimental conditions. The findings suggest that gymnasts can use visual spotting during the back aerial somersault, even when the time of flight is delimited. We conclude that knowledge about gaze–movement relationships may help coaches develop specific training programs in the learning process of the back aerial somersault.