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Barrie Gordon and Stephanie Doyle

The transfer of learning from the gym to other areas of participants’ lives has always been a core component of the Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility Model. The degree to which transfer of learning is successfully facilitated in the reality of Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility Model-based teaching and coaching is, however, uncertain. The research findings are mixed both in the commitment to transfer of learning and the level of success that has been achieved. The interest in transfer of learning is not restricted to the area of the Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility Model or physical education and sport in general, but is an area of strong academic interest with a long history of research and debate. This article draws on the knowledge and understandings of transfer of learning from this wider literature to explore ways in which to help facilitate transfer of learning for practitioners of the Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility Model.

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Paul M. Wright, K. Andrew R. Richards, Jennifer M. Jacobs and Michael A. Hemphill

prevailing logic applied to the transfer of learning. It is well established that adolescents are actively making choices involving values, behaviors, and social norms ( Eccles, Barber, Stone, & Hunt, 2003 ; Lerner & Steinberg, 2009 ). Moreover, their cognitive and affective processes involve making

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David I. Anderson and Anthony M. Mayo

This paper examines the costs and benefits of early specialization in sport from a skill acquisition perspective. The focus is on whether early specialization in a single sport is the best way to facilitate the acquisition of skill in that sport. The paper is organized relative to the two major conceptual frameworks that have motivated much of the discussion about early specialization in sport: the theory of deliberate practice and the Developmental Model of Sport Participation. Our analysis reveals that while early specialization in sport is one way to reach elite status, it is not the only way. Considerable evidence shows that many elite athletes specialized in their sport late, following diversified experiences with other sports. These findings raise a number of exciting questions about the long-term development of skill in sport.

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Barrie Gordon

This study examined a six-month implementation of the Responsibility Model in a New Zealand secondary school. Data were collected through interviews, observations and student self-assessments. The implementation was found to be successful in developing positive, supportive and well-behaved classes in physical education. The majority of students developed a greater understanding of personal and social responsibility and became more personally and socially responsible in class. For most students, however, this understanding was firmly associated with physical education and they generally showed little understanding of the potential for the transfer of learning to other contexts.

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Yuri Hanin, Tapio Korjus, Petteri Jouste and Paul Baxter

Exploratory studies examine the effectiveness of old way/new way, an innovative meta-cognitive learning strategy initially developed in education settings, in the rapid and permanent correction of established technique difficulties experienced by two Olympic athletes in javelin and sprinting. Individualized interventions included video-assisted error analysis, step-wise enhancement of kinesthetic awareness, reactivation of the error memory, discrimination, and generalization of the correct movement pattern. Self-reports, coach’s ratings, and video recordings were used as measures of technique improvement. A single learning trial produced immediate and permanent technique improvement (80% or higher correct action) and full transfer of learning, without the need for the customary adaptation period. Findings are consistent with the performance enhancement effects of old way/new way demonstrated experimentally in nonsport settings.

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Sergio Lara-Bercial, A.J. Rankin-Wright, Jason Tee, Fieke Rongen, Tom Mitchell, Mike Ashford, David Piggott and Kevin Till

depicts changes that occur during the learning process in relation to the transfer of learning responsibility from the coach to the players. The findings identified six SIs: SI Activity Organisation, SI Guided Practice, SI Autonomous Practice, SI Discussion, SI Recapitulation and SI Transition. Abrupt

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Marcelo Eduardo de Souza Nunes, Umberto Cesar Correa, Marina Gusman Thomazi Xavier de Souza, Luciano Basso, Daniel Boari Coelho and Suely Santos

motor learning but not savings at transfer of learning . Learning and Memory, 14 , 17 – 21 . PubMed ID: 17202428 doi:10.1101/lm.394707 10.1101/lm.394707 Singer , R.N. , Murphy , M. , & Tennant , L.K. ( 1993 ). Handbook of research on sport psychology . New York, NY : Macmillan . Ste

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Amy Price, Dave Collins, John Stoszkowski and Shane Pill

able to seek teaching from the game ( Gee, 2007 ), leading to transfer of learning in new contexts. Game design that focuses on strategy before skill, causing multiple possible processes and outcomes. Opportunities for players to decide when and how they’d like support, guided by Flavell’s ( 1979

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Shane Pill and Brendon Hyndman

 al., 2012 ). There has been very little mention of Gestaltist psychology learning theory across the international PE literature. Just one paper to the authors’ knowledge has articulated the value of Gestalt psychological theory in PE and sport for the transferability of learning in PE ( Garcia Lopez

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Karen E. Collins, Catherine E. Overson and Victor A. Benassi

for educational practice . Perspectives on Psychological Science, 1, 181 – 210 . PubMed ID: 26151629 doi:10.1111/j.1745-6916.2006.00012.x Rohrer , D. , Taylor , K. , & Sholar , B. ( 2010 ). Tests enhance the transfer of learning . Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and