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Martin Camiré, Kelsey Kendellen, Scott Rathwell, and Evelyne Felber Charbonneau

skill, it must transfer and be applied beyond sport. To promote transfer, coaches must help students recognize their existing skills and encourage them to practice the skills learned in sport in everyday life situations ( Pierce, Gould, & Camiré, 2017 ). Danish, Forneris, and Wallace ( 2005 ) discussed

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Laetitia Jeancolas, Lauriane Rat-Fischer, J. Kevin O’Regan, and Jacqueline Fagard

able to solve other unfamiliar tool tasks, like retrieving an out-of-reach toy with an unconnected rake. Since these two tasks have many similarities, such as type of movement (toward the self), and tool grasp (at the handle extremity), and that transfer abilities from one problem to another are

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Paul M. Wright, K. Andrew R. Richards, Jennifer M. Jacobs, and Michael A. Hemphill

, Rukavina, & Pickering, 2008 ) and direct observation ( Wright & Craig, 2011 ). However, none have been proposed to assess ways that responsibility learning in physical education may transfer to other settings; the current paper describes the development and validation of such an instrument. To position

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Nima Dehghansai, Alia Mazhar, and Joseph Baker

Historically, talent transfer (TT) is known to be a formalized 1 process designed to facilitate the movement of skilled athletes from one sport to another ( Collins et al., 2014 ). 2 While the reasons athletes look to transfer between sports may vary (as will be discussed below), this has not

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Damien M. O’Meara and Richard M. Smith

The aim of this study was to compare the effects of grab rail position, orientation, and number of hands used on the kinetics of assisted sit-to-stand transfers. Participants were 12 able-bodied older adults between the ages of 69 and 88 years. While each one performed the sit-to-stand transfer, a motion analysis system with 9 cameras recording at 60 Hz tracked the 3-D trajectories of retroreflective markers. Bilateral 3-D platform, grab rail, and seat force data were collected at 200 Hz and normalized to participant body weight. Four lateral conditions were tested: vertical, 45° inclined, and horizontal with the hand placed at 150 mm and 400 mm forward of the seat front edge. Four anterior conditions were tested: vertical and horizontal orientations with the use of one hand and two hands. Posterior grab rail force increased with anterior assistance and with two-hand use compared to lateral assistance and single hand use, respectively. The selection of grab rail position and the number of hands incorporated during assistance also determined the symmetry of an-teroposterior net joint forces, net joint moments, and joint powers. Grab rail orientation determined the height of the gripping hand which influenced the assistance strategy. Grab rail position, orientation, and the amount of upper body contribution influenced the assisted sit-to-stand transfer. These kinetic responses to grab rail location require careful consideration in order to optimize grab rail assistance during the sit-to-stand transfer.

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Michael A. Hemphill and K. Andrew R. Richards

Purpose:

The purpose of this study was to examine youth development outcomes in an Urban Squash program.

Methods:

A mixed method approach to was employed to address three research questions: 1) to what extent did the Urban Squash program exhibit features of a quality OST program?; 2) what aspects of the Urban Squash program were most valued by participants and stakeholders?; and 3) how were outcomes gained within urban squash transferred into the school day. The OST Observation Instrument was employed to provide a measure of fidelity related to the implementation of quality program structures. Youth participants (N = 21) and adults (N = 13) with knowledge of the program were interviewed in a semistructured format. Qualitative inductive analysis and constant comparison methods were used to generate themes.

Results:

Systematic observations demonstrated that the program reflected a strong program design with activities that were sequenced, active, personally focused, and explicit. Within that context, four qualitative themes related to quality programming include 1) academic enrichment, 2) academic transfer, 3) relationships, and 4) personal and social responsibility.

Conclusions:

Urban Squash provided a quality program structure. Transfer from the program to the school was evident with academic enrichment and personal and social responsibility.

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Robin J. Dunn

their behaviors throughout the physical activity component of the lesson. Learner reflection is key during debriefing and takes place at the end of the lesson. Researchers have indicated that there should be clear, explicit approaches for debriefing experiences and facilitating transfer of the learning

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Cassio M. Meira Jr and Jeffrey T. Fairbrother

of augmented feedback in the form of knowledge of results (KR). It was expected that the task-orientation group would show superior learning compared to the ego-orientation group during retention and transfer. Experiment 2 compared task- and ego-orientation groups that either did or did not receive

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Rodrigo Ghedini Gheller, Rafael Lima Kons, Juliano Dal Pupo, and Daniele Detanico

transfer of training (i.e.,  the extent to which a response in a trained task affects the response in another untrained task; Impellizzeri et al., 2008 ) to different performances is essential ( Young, 2006 ). As previously mentioned, vertical jumps and sprints are widely used to develop the speed

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Timothy D. Lee and Heather Carnahan

result and indeed, its publication would not have had much impact. But Shea and Morgan took the experiment one important step further—they conducted several tests of retention and transfer. In most of these tests, the participants who earlier had practiced in a random order performed better (faster and