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Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility and Transfer of Learning: Opportunities and Challenges for Teachers and Coaches

Barrie Gordon and Stephanie Doyle

The transfer of learning from the gym to other areas of participants’ lives has always been a core component of the Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility Model. The degree to which transfer of learning is successfully facilitated in the reality of Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility Model-based teaching and coaching is, however, uncertain. The research findings are mixed both in the commitment to transfer of learning and the level of success that has been achieved. The interest in transfer of learning is not restricted to the area of the Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility Model or physical education and sport in general, but is an area of strong academic interest with a long history of research and debate. This article draws on the knowledge and understandings of transfer of learning from this wider literature to explore ways in which to help facilitate transfer of learning for practitioners of the Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility Model.

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Virtual Motivation: The Psychological and Transfer of Learning Effects of Immersive Virtual Reality Practice

Logan T. Markwell, Joei R. Velten, Julie A. Partridge, and Jared M. Porter

improvements (e.g., positive transfer of learning) compared to traditional practice when the VR practice difficulty is adapted based on the individual’s skill level ( Gray, 2017 ). While it is unlikely that VR will completely replace traditional physical practice, practicing in VR offers numerous advantages

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Transfer and Retention Effects of a Motor Program in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders

Jin Bo, Bo Shen, YanLi Pang, Mingting Zhang, Yuan Xiang, Liangshan Dong, Yu Song, Patricia Lasutschinkow, Alina Dillahunt, and Dan Li

learning studies have demonstrated that learning can be transferred to a new mode of movement (e.g., from tracking to pointing, Abeele & Bock, 2003 ). The transfer of learning (also known as generalization ) reflects our ability to adaptively and flexibly modify any learned motor skills for human

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Measuring Perceived Transfer of Responsibility Learning From Physical Education: Initial Validation of the Transfer of Responsibility Questionnaire

Paul M. Wright, K. Andrew R. Richards, Jennifer M. Jacobs, and Michael A. Hemphill

prevailing logic applied to the transfer of learning. It is well established that adolescents are actively making choices involving values, behaviors, and social norms ( Eccles, Barber, Stone, & Hunt, 2003 ; Lerner & Steinberg, 2009 ). Moreover, their cognitive and affective processes involve making

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Applying the Principles of Motor Learning in Preventative Programs of Overuse Injuries in Young Athletes: A Scoping Review

Mohsen Shafizadeh, Shahab Parvinpour, and Andrew Barnes

power law of practice (quantity of practice); the transfer of learning/practice representativeness (similarity on skills and contexts); implicit and explicit methods (overt and covert attention); the practice organization in terms of activity/rest ratio (mass and distributed); contextual interference

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A Skill Acquisition Perspective on Early Specialization in Sport

David I. Anderson and Anthony M. Mayo

This paper examines the costs and benefits of early specialization in sport from a skill acquisition perspective. The focus is on whether early specialization in a single sport is the best way to facilitate the acquisition of skill in that sport. The paper is organized relative to the two major conceptual frameworks that have motivated much of the discussion about early specialization in sport: the theory of deliberate practice and the Developmental Model of Sport Participation. Our analysis reveals that while early specialization in sport is one way to reach elite status, it is not the only way. Considerable evidence shows that many elite athletes specialized in their sport late, following diversified experiences with other sports. These findings raise a number of exciting questions about the long-term development of skill in sport.

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An Examination of the Responsibility Model in a New Zealand Secondary School Physical Education Program

Barrie Gordon

This study examined a six-month implementation of the Responsibility Model in a New Zealand secondary school. Data were collected through interviews, observations and student self-assessments. The implementation was found to be successful in developing positive, supportive and well-behaved classes in physical education. The majority of students developed a greater understanding of personal and social responsibility and became more personally and socially responsible in class. For most students, however, this understanding was firmly associated with physical education and they generally showed little understanding of the potential for the transfer of learning to other contexts.

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Rapid Technique Correction Using Old Way/new Way: Two Case Studies with Olympic Athletes

Yuri Hanin, Tapio Korjus, Petteri Jouste, and Paul Baxter

Exploratory studies examine the effectiveness of old way/new way, an innovative meta-cognitive learning strategy initially developed in education settings, in the rapid and permanent correction of established technique difficulties experienced by two Olympic athletes in javelin and sprinting. Individualized interventions included video-assisted error analysis, step-wise enhancement of kinesthetic awareness, reactivation of the error memory, discrimination, and generalization of the correct movement pattern. Self-reports, coach’s ratings, and video recordings were used as measures of technique improvement. A single learning trial produced immediate and permanent technique improvement (80% or higher correct action) and full transfer of learning, without the need for the customary adaptation period. Findings are consistent with the performance enhancement effects of old way/new way demonstrated experimentally in nonsport settings.

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Sequence Structure Has a Differential Effect on Underlying Motor Learning Processes

Shikha Prashad, Yue Du, and Jane E. Clark

of learning, response time variability) compare between sequence structures. Transfer of learning and decreased variability provide provide an evaluation of whether performance can be maintained in different contexts or variations of the skill ( Cohen & Sternad, 2009 ; Newell, 1991 ; Newell

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Coaching on the Talent Pathway: Understanding the Influence of Developmental Experiences on Coaching Philosophy

Graham G. Williams and Áine MacNamara

ability of the pathway coach to adapt and appropriately support the developmental needs of the young athlete may be enhanced by the transfer of learning from past athletic experiences in a pathway. Calais ( 2006 ) summarised this concept eloquently, as he stated, “learning from history is transfer of