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Karen P. DePauw

imperative might begin with access, but it cannot end there. Equity, fairness, and basic human rights are key underlying principles. Ultimately, outcomes of social justice efforts will be inclusion and transformational change. My education in special education and my professional experiences in adapted

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Aubrey Newland, Maria Newton, E. Whitney G. Moore, and W. Eric Legg

seeks to fill this gap by examining the relationships between transformational leadership and PYD. Positive Youth Development It is crucial to understand PYD because the more positive developmental experiences that youth have, the greater their ability will be to contribute to society as thriving adults

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Sinan Yildirim and Ziya Koruç

Transformational leaders have been a subject of important sport research ( Álvarez et al., 2016 ; Arthur et al., 2017 ; Callow et al., 2009 ; Kao & Tsai, 2016 ). These studies have revealed that transformational leadership is critical in sports and that coaches’ transformational leadership

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Nina Verma, Robert C. Eklund, Calum A. Arthur, Timothy C. Howle, and Ann-Marie Gibson

; Howle, Jackson, Conroy, & Dimmock, 2015 ), which we propose may be shaped by school-based physical education (PE) teachers’ use of transformational teaching behavior ( Beauchamp et al., 2010 ). A recent review has highlighted the potential effectiveness of school-based interventions underpinned by

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Shuge Zhang, Stuart Beattie, Amanda Pitkethly, and Chelsey Dempsey

training behaviors shown by Woodman et al. One relevant leadership theory that attracts our attention is that of transformational leadership ( Bass, 1985 ). Transformational leadership is of interest due to its “inspiring, developing and empowering” properties ( Yukl, 2006 , p. 289). It involves building

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Lara M. Duke, Jennifer P. Gorman, and Jennifer M. Browne

kinesiology and the unique complexity of leading in the 21st century are referenced throughout this paper ( Block, 2014 ; Block & Estes, 2011 ; Lawson, 2014 ). As Block and Estes ( 2011 ) make clear, higher education faces significant challenges regarding digital transformation, marketization, quality

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Sarah Lawrason, Jennifer Turnnidge, Luc J. Martin, and Jean Côté

autonomy-supportive behaviors; Deci & Ryan, 1985 ; Mageau & Vallerand, 2003 ), transformational leadership (TFL; Bass, 1998 ) is valuable for examining how leaders, such as coaches, can effectively use interpersonal skills to influence followers’ (i.e., athletes’) outcomes and has been widely studied

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Per G. Svensson and Richard Loat

( Schulenkorf & Spaaij, 2016 ). In light of the multistakeholder nature of SDP, we, therefore, draw on Brown’s ( 2015 ) framework on bridge-building for social transformation to identify how multistakeholder initiatives in SDP can be better leveraged for lasting outcomes and systemic change to be attained. For

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Alison J. Doherty and Karen E. Danylchuk

This study examined the leader behavior of interuniversity athletic administrators according to Bass's (1985) transformational/transactional leadership model. The impact of that behavior on subordinates’ satisfaction with leadership, perceived leader effectiveness, departmental commitment, and extra effort was also examined. A sample of head coaches from Ontario universities (N = 114) completed the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) Form 5X (Bass & Avolio, 1991) with regard to their athletic administrators. The resultant profile was one of predominantly transformational as opposed to transactional or nonleadership behavior. Furthermore, leader-centered behavior (idealized influence, attributed charisma) was used more often than subordinate-centered behavior (individualized consideration, intellectual stimulation). Coaches' satisfaction with leadership, perceived leader effectiveness, and extra effort were positively and strongly associated with transformational leadership and contingent reward behavior, whereas negative relationships were observed for management-by-exception (passive) and nonleadership behaviors. Leader behavior was not associated with the coaches' commitment to the athletic department.

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Petra Jansen-Osmann, Stefanie Richter, Thomas Schinauer, Petra Fuchs, and Karl-Theodor Kalveram

The question addressed in the present study is whether children and adults are able to combine and decompose separate kinematic (visual-feedback-shift) and dynamic (velocity-dependent force) transformations in goal-directed arm movements. A total of 64 participants (32 adults and 32 children) performed horizontal forearm movements using a single-joint arm manipulandum. When participants first learned kinematic and dynamic transformations separately, target error decreased in a subsequent combined transformation task. This effect was based on previous learning of the kinematic transformation. When they first learned the combined transformation, target error was smaller in the following kinematic—but not in the dynamic—transformation. No difference was found in adaptation performance between children and adults. The results suggest that there are two separate models for the kinematic and dynamic transformation and that a possible differentiation of kinematic and dynamic features of the motor task might already be present at age 11.