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Josh Ogden and Jonathon R. Edwards

Organizations in a sport system compete against one another while working together to sustain a competitive environment and to provide opportunities for competition at the provincial/state, national, or international level. This paper is a multicase study comparison of the elite sport development systems of Canada and Sweden to explore the differences and similarities between their approaches to the delivery of ice hockey. Semistructured interviews took place with participants from North America and Europe. Additional data came from media articles from Canada and Sweden. Findings revealed six themes/characteristics: the cost of hockey, residential boundaries, the player selection process, skill development, early specialization, and coaching. The results suggest that Canadian and Swedish hockey systems offer two different approaches to elite player development (closed vs. open systems), resulting in different trajectories regarding international success in the World Junior Championships and in the number of players drafted into the National Hockey League.

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Naroa Etxebarria, Jackson Wright, Hamish Jeacocke, Cristian Mesquida, and David B. Pyne

less strong skills and abilities (eg, poorer technical cycling skills). The order in which athletes come out of both the swimming and cycling sections results in critical transition points where race dynamics take shape. Strong swimmers will come out of the water first and try to create a gap between

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Markus Tilp, Lukas Kitzberger, Gudrun Schappacher-Tilp, Philipp Birnbaumer, and Peter Hofmann

of increased activation of type II muscle fibers during biceps curls compared with cycling. This study is not without limitations. Although the detection of systemic transition points is well established for whole-body incremental exercise, such as running and cycling, few publications exist that

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Mark R. Noon, Emma L.J. Eyre, Matthew Ellis, Tony D. Myers, Rhys O. Morris, Peter D. Mundy, Ryan Penny, and Neil D. Clarke

retained or released on an annual or biannual basis, previous studies have not carried out a cross-sectional analysis that tracks cohorts of players through their academy journey accounting for these transition points. Hence, using a cross-sectional analysis to retrospectively track 4 cohorts of players

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Katherine Raw, Emma Sherry, Katie Rowe, and Shelley Turner

potential for young people to become disenfranchised and exasperated with these services ( Paul et al., 2013 ), leading to further disengagement from networks during important transition points in life ( Naert et al., 2019 ). It is also worth noting that abrupt terminations of programs and care services are