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Hannah M. Badland and Grant M. Schofield

Background:

Leisure time physical activities have been a priority in recent years for many health practitioners, with transport-related physical activity (TPA) largely ignored. The urban environment has altered in the last few decades, increasing the reliance on automobiles. Simultaneously we have seen increases in obesity and other non-communicable diseases related to sedentary lifestyles.

Methods:

Information was sourced from major health databases. The remainder of the literature was directed from citations in articles accessed from the initial search.

Results:

Clear health benefits result from regular TPA engagement, with opportunities closely linked to accessible urban design infrastructure. Much of the existing evidence, however, has been extracted from cross-sectional research, rather than interventions. As such, drawing causal relationships is not yet possible.

Conclusions:

Existing evidence necessitates TPA research and promotion should be public health and urban design priorities. Collaborative research needs to incorporate prospective study designs to understand TPA behavior.

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Luis F. Gómez, Olga L. Sarmiento, Diego I. Lucumí, Gladys Espinosa, Roberto Forero and Adrian Bauman

Background:

Utilitarian physical activity confers health benefits, but little is known about experiences in developing countries. The objective was to examine the prevalence and factors associated with walking and bicycling for transport in adults from Bogotá.

Methods:

A cross-sectional study including 1464 adults age 18 to 29 y during the year 2002.

Results:

16.7% reported bicycling for at least 10 min during the last week and 71.7% reported walking for at least 90 min during the last week. Bicycling was more likely among adults living in Tunjuelito (flat terrain), who use the “ciclovía” (car-roads for recreational bicycling on holidays/Sundays) or reporting physical activity during leisure-time and less likely among women, or adults with college education. Walking was more likely among adults reporting physical activity during leisure time and less likely among housewives/househusbands or those living in Tunjuelito.

Conclusion:

Programs that promote walking or bicycling in Bogotá should consider differences in individual and environmental factors.

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Jerome N. Rachele, Vincent Learnihan, Hannah M. Badland, Suzanne Mavoa, Gavin Turrell and Billie Giles-Corti

Living in more “walkable” environments encourages physical activity by providing opportunities to incorporate walking into daily activities, 1 which has potential to lower the prevalence of overweight and obesity. 2 However, rates of walking for transport in Australia are relatively low. For

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Alaaddine El-Chab and Miriam E. Clegg

, which was based on two criteria: (a) the average distance traveled to work by trip length and mode in Great Britain ( Department for Transport, 2013 ) and (b) the distance required to apply for a parking permit at Oxford Brookes University ( Oxford Brookes University, 2014 ). According to the national

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J.J.F.P. Luiken, D. Miskovic, Y. Arumugam, J.F.C. Glatz and A. Bonen

While it has long been assumed that long chain fatty acids (LCFA) can freely diffuse across the plasma membrane, recent work has shown that LCFA uptake also involves a protein-mediated mechanism. Three putative LCFA transporters have been identified (FABPpm, FATP, and FAT/CD36), and all are expressed in rodent and human muscles. In a new model system (giant vesicles), we have demonstrated that (a) LCFA transport rates are scaled with the oxidative capacity of heart and muscle, (b) only FABPpm and FAT/CD36, but not FATP1, correlate with vesicular LCFA transport, and (c) LCFA transport can be increased by increasing (1) the FAT/CD36 protein of muscle (chronic adaptation) or (2) via the translocation of FAT/CD36 from an intracellular pool to the plasma membrane during muscle contraction (acute adaptation).

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A. Stefanie Mikolaizak, Jochen Klenk, Dietrich Rothenbacher, Michael D. Denkinger, Kilian Rapp and for the ActiFE Study Group

of transport (MoT) influence PA. Therefore, it is of interest to determine to what degree these activities/MoT contribute to the time out-of-home and to overall PA. Studies investigating outdoor activity in adults aged 65 years and older frequently rely on self-reporting ( Thompson et al., 2011 ) to

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Erik A. Richter, Jørgen F.P. Wojtaszewski, Søren Kristiansen, Jens R. Daugaard, Jakob N. Nielsen, Wim Derave and Bente Kiens

In the present short review some factors affecting glucose utilization during exercise in skeletal muscle will be briefly described. Special focus will be put on the glucose transport step across the sarcolemma. Glucose transporters (GLUT4) are expressed at a surprisingly similar level in the different muscle fiber types in human skeletal muscle in contrast to findings in the rat. When working at the same absolute work load muscle glucose transport is decreased in trained compared with untrained muscle in part due to a decrease in GLUT4 translocation to the sarcolemma in trained muscle. However, when trained and untrained muscle are stressed severely by a workload taxing 100% of their peak oxygen uptake in a glycogen-depleted state, then glucose uptake is larger in trained than in untrained muscle and correlates with muscle GLUT4 content. Finally, the possible role of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in regulating glucose uptake during exercise is discussed. It is indicated that at present no experiments definitively link activation of AMPK to activation of muscle glucose transport during exercise.

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Lee Smith, Brendon Stubbs, L. Hu, Nicola Veronese, Davy Vancampfort, Genevieve Williams, Domenico Vicinanza, Sarah E. Jackson, Li Ying, Guillermo F. López-Sánchez and Lin Yang

coronary heart disease (eg, see Twig et al 12 ). A recent systematic review 13 on the associations between active transport and health (including a total of 24 studies from 12 countries, 15 of which included adult samples) concluded that active transport may have positive effects on health outcomes

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Shannon L. Sahlqvist and Kristiann C. Heesch

Background:

Initiatives to promote utility cycling in countries like Australia and the US, which have low rates of utility cycling, may be more effective if they first target recreational cyclists. This study aimed to describe patterns of utility cycling and examine its correlates, among cyclists in Queensland, Australia.

Methods:

An online survey was administered to adult members of a state-based cycling community and advocacy group (n = 1813). The survey asked about demographic characteristics and cycling behavior, motivators and constraints. Utility cycling patterns were described, and logistic regression modeling was used to examine associations between utility cycling and other variables.

Results:

Forty-seven percent of respondents reported utility cycling: most did so to commute (86%). Most journeys (83%) were > 5 km. Being male, younger, employed full-time, or university-educated increased the likelihood of utility cycling (P < .05). Perceiving cycling to be a cheap or a convenient form of transport was associated with utility cycling (P < .05).

Conclusions:

The moderate rate of utility cycling among recreational cyclists highlights a potential to promote utility cycling among this group. To increase utility cycling, strategies should target female and older recreational cyclists and focus on making cycling a cheap and convenient mode of transport.

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Sonja Kahlmeier, Francesca Racioppi, Nick Cavill, Harry Rutter and Pekka Oja

Background:

There is growing interest in “Health in All Policies” approaches, aiming at promoting health through policies which are under the control of nonhealth sectors. While economic appraisal is an established practice in transport planning, health effects are rarely taken into account. An international project was carried out to develop guidance and tools for practitioners for quantifying the health effects of cycling and walking, supporting their full appraisal.

Development Process:

A systematic review of existing approaches was carried out. Then, the products were developed with an international expert panel through an extensive consensus finding process.

Products and Applications:

Methodological guidance was developed which addresses the main challenges practitioners encounter in the quantification of health effects from cycling and walking. A “Health Economic Assessment Tool (HEAT) for cycling” was developed which is being used in several countries.

Conclusions:

There is a need for a more consistent approach to the quantification of health benefits from cycling and walking. This project is providing guidance and an illustrative tool for cycling for practical application. Results show that substantial savings can be expected. Such tools illustrate the importance of considering health in transport policy and infrastructure planning, putting “Health in All Policies” into practice.