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Lindsay Eales and Donna L. Goodwin

Before you read this article, we want you to know that we will discuss trauma, violence in many forms, and mental distress. We share this information as a trauma-related access practice ( Carter, 2015 ; Kafer, 2016 ). We ask you to pause and consider if you consent to continue reading. If you need

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André Bateman and Kai A.D. Morgan

inclusive of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomatology. 3 , 4 PTSD is recognized as a trauma- and stressor-related disorder characterized by subjective clinical distress following exposure to catastrophic or aversive events. 5 The major groups of symptoms of PTSD are intrusive memories and

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Danielle Rousseau, Kimberleigh Weiss-Lewit, and Mark Lilly

within the #MeToo movement around empowering people who are survivors of sexual trauma, abuse, and/or violence, it is essential to acknowledge that while the #MeToo movement and the progress it has made for survivors of sexual violence feels very much of the moment, we owe the movement to Tarana Burke, a

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Kyle Pushkarenko, Janice Causgrove Dunn, and Donna L. Goodwin

continue to plague PL programs until an ecological understanding of the influences families and their children endure in community level programs is recognized ( Goodwin & Peers, 2011 ; Guy-Evans, 2020 ; Spencer-Cavaliere et al., 2017 ). Systematic exclusion, based in ableism, is culminated in a trauma

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Jason P. Shurley and Janice S. Todd

In recent years there has been a significant increase in the scrutiny of head trauma in football. This attention is due largely to a host of studies that have been highly publicized and linked the repetitive head trauma in football to late-life neurological impairment. Scientists and physicians familiar with boxing have been aware of such impairment, resulting from repeated head impacts, for more than 80 years. Few, however, made the connection between the similarity of head impacts in boxing and football until recent decades. This article examines the medical and scientific literature related to head trauma in both boxing and football, paying particular attention to the different emphases of that research. Further, the literature is used to trace the understanding of sport-related chronic head trauma as well as how that understanding has prompted reform efforts in each sport. Finally, in light of the current understanding of the long-term sequelae of repetitive head trauma, some consideration is given to what football administrators can learn from the reform efforts in boxing.

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Mark A. Merrick and Nicole M. McBrier


Acute musculoskeletal-injury management largely focuses on inhibiting secondary injury, although the data describing secondary injury and the timeline for its progression are sparse.


To describe the timeline and early progression of secondary injury in skeletal muscle over the first 5 h after blunt trauma.


A controlled laboratory study with 2 independent variables (injury status and postinjury time point) in a 2 × 21 factorial.


University research laboratory.


168 male Sprague Dawley rats (250 to 275 g).


Uniform blunt-contusion injury was caused to the right triceps surae using a drop-weight method; the contralateral limb served as an uninjured control. Both triceps surae were excised and flash frozen at 21 intervals across 5 h postinjury (8 animals, each 15 min).

Main Outcome Measures:

Cytochrome-c oxidase activity via reduction of triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) to triphenyl-formazan.


There was an interaction effect (P = .041) between and main effects for both injury status (P < .0005) and postinjury time point (P = .038). In the first 30 min after injury, uninjured tissues did not differ from injured tissues, and both displayed TTC reduction rates in the vicinity of 7.1 ± 0.94 μg · mg−1 · h−1. Statistical differences between uninjured and injured tissues became evident starting at 30 min. TTC reduction for uninjured tissues did not change, but injured tissues declined in a roughly linear fashion across the entire 5-h period to 4.8 ± 1.04 μg · mg−1 · h−1.


Cytochrome-c oxidase activity, an indicator of oxidative phosphorylation and mitochondrial viability, is diminished by events that follow muscle trauma. Loss of this enzymatic activity becomes statistically evident at 30 min postinjury and continues linearly for at least 5 h. This suggests that secondary injury is a slowly developing problem of more than 5 h duration. A window of opportunity for intervention may lie somewhere within the first 30 min after injury.

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Ross Wadey, Kylie Roy-Davis, Lynne Evans, Karen Howells, Jade Salim, and Ceri Diss

.psychsport.2014.08.004 Howells , K. , Sarkar , M. , & Fletcher , D. ( 2017 ). Can athletes benefit from difficulty? A systematic review of growth following adversity in competitive sport . Progress in Brain Research, 16, 37 – 48 . Joseph , S. , & Linley , P.A. ( 2008 ). Trauma, recovery, and

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John H. Abrams

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Bianca Miarka, Fábio Dal Bello, Ciro J. Brito, Fabrício B. Del Vecchio, John Amtmann, and Karim Chamari

terms of injury severity patterns, a consecutive case series using data from postbout medical examinations suggested that KOs and TKOs in boxing and MMA appear to be associated with a longer time of postbout medical suspensions and brain trauma reports. 16 The athletes are kicking/striking each other

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Andy T. McGown

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