The current study examined the effects of 10-h northbound air travel across 1 time zone on sleep quantity, together with subjective jet lag and wellness ratings, in 16 male professional Australian football (soccer) players. Player wellness was measured throughout the week before (home training week) and the week of (away travel week) travel from Australia to Japan for a preseason tour. Sleep quantity and subjective jet lag were measured 2 d before (Pre 1 and 2), the day of, and for 5 d after travel (Post 1–5). Sleep duration was significantly reduced during the night before travel (Pre 1; 4.9 [4.2−5.6] h) and night of competition (Post 2; 4.2 [3.7−4.7] h) compared with every other night (P < .01, d > 0.90). Moreover, compared with the day before travel, subjective jet lag was significantly greater for the 5 d after travel (P < .05, d > 0.90), and player wellness was significantly lower 1 d postmatch (Post 3) than at all other time points (P < .05, d > 0.90). Results from the current study suggest that sleep disruption, as a result of an early travel departure time (8 PM) and evening match (7:30 PM), and fatigue induced by competition had a greater effect on wellness ratings than long-haul air travel with a minimal time-zone change. Furthermore, subjective jet lag may have been misinterpreted as fatigue from sleep disruption and competition, especially by the less experienced players. Therefore, northbound air travel across 1 time zone from Australia to Asia appears to have negligible effects on player preparedness for subsequent training and competition.
Peter Fowler, Rob Duffield, Kieran Howle, Adam Waterson and Joanna Vaile
Peter Fowler, Rob Duffield and Joanna Vaile
The current study examined the effects of short-haul air travel on competition performance and subsequent recovery. Six male professional Australian football (soccer) players were recruited to participate in the study. Data were collected from 12 matches, which included 6 home and away matches against the same 4 teams. Together with the outcome of each match, data were obtained for team technical and tactical performance indicators and individual player-movement patterns. Furthermore, sleep quantity and quality, hydration, and perceptual fatigue were measured 2 days before, the day of, and 2 days after each match. More competition points were accumulated (P > .05, d = 1.10) and fewer goals were conceded (P > .05, d = 0.93) in home than in away matches. Furthermore, more shots on goal (P > .05, d = 1.17) and corners (P > .05, d = 1.45) and fewer opposition shots on goal (P > .05, d = 1.18) and corners (P < .05, d = 2.32) occurred, alongside reduced total distance covered (P > .05, d = 1.19) and low-intensity activity (P < .05, d = 2.25) during home than during away matches. However, while oxygen saturation was significantly lower during than before and after outbound and return travel (P < .01), equivocal differences in sleep quantity and quality, hydration, and perceptual fatigue were observed before and after competition away compared with home. These results suggest that, compared with short-haul air travel, factors including situational variables, territoriality, tactics, and athlete psychological state are more important in determining match outcome. Furthermore, despite the potential for disrupted recovery patterns, return travel did not impede player recovery or perceived readiness to train.
Trent Stellingwerff, David B. Pyne and Louise M. Burke
Elite athletes who compete in aquatic sports face the constant challenge of arduous training and competition schedules in difficult and changing environmental conditions. The huge range of water temperatures to which swimmers and other aquatic athletes are often exposed (16–31 °C for open-water swimming), coupled with altered aquatic thermoregulatory responses as compared with terrestrial athletes, can challenge the health, safety, and performance of these athletes. Other environmental concerns include air and water pollution, altitude, and jetlag and travel fatigue. However, these challenging environments provide the potential for several nutritional interventions that can mitigate the negative effects and enhance adaptation and performance. These interventions include providing adequate hydration and carbohydrate and iron intake while at altitude; optimizing body composition and fluid and carbohydrate intake when training or competing in varying water temperatures; and maximizing fluid and food hygiene when traveling. There is also emerging information on nutritional interventions to manage jetlag and travel fatigue, such as the timing of food intake and the strategic use of caffeine or melatonin. Aquatic athletes often undertake their major global competitions where accommodations feature cafeteria-style buffet eating. These environments can often lead to inappropriate choices in the type and quantity of food intake, which is of particular concern to divers and synchronized swimmers who compete in physique-specific sports, as well as swimmers who have a vastly reduced energy expenditure during their taper. Taken together, planned nutrition and hydration interventions can have a favorable impact on aquatic athletes facing varying environmental challenges.
Bruno Marrier, Yann Le Meur, Cédric Leduc, Julien Piscione, Mathieu Lacome, Germain Igarza, Christophe Hausswirth, Jean-Benoît Morin and Julien Robineau
≤2 time zones (not expected to cause significant travel fatigue or jet lag); • Category B (long-distance travel): traveled ≥4 hours and crossed ≤2 time zones (likely to cause travel fatigue but not jet lag); and • Category C (long-distance travel across multiple time zones): traveled ≥10 hours and
Sarah Kölling, Rob Duffield, Daniel Erlacher, Ranel Venter and Shona L. Halson
sleep, the concomitant domestic or international travel associated with competition demands can further interfere with sleep behavior. 28 That is, as a result of the duration or extent of travel (eg, changes in time zones), a combination of jet lag and/or travel fatigue can disrupt sleeping patterns
Trent Stellingwerff, Ingvill Måkestad Bovim and Jamie Whitfield
leaving the day after competition. Considerations around travel fatigue, jet lag, and racing fatigue (emotional/physical) must all be considered (Table 1 ). Table 1 Nutritional Challenges and Solutions Facing Elite Middle-Distance Runners Travelling and at Major Competitions Nutrition challenges (from
Shona L. Halson, Louise M. Burke and Jeni Pearce
the host environment. Meanwhile, specialized training camps targeting heat, altitude, or a dedicated training focus may also require international travel. Strategies to manage travel fatigue and jet lag, and to ensure adequate hygiene and appropriate catering in the new environment, can minimize the
Ciara Sinnott-O’Connor, Thomas M. Comyns, Alan M. Nevill and Giles D. Warrington
after arrival in Brazil to reduce any impact of travel fatigue and jet lag on salivary biomarker response. During the noncompetition periods, salivary data were collected twice weekly to determine a baseline hormonal profile, while daily samples were collected each morning during the Paralympics
Brendan H. Lazarus, William G. Hopkins, Andrew M. Stewart and Robert J. Aughey
. 11 The effect of jet lag in Australian football remains confounded and should be considered in future research. In this study, in support of the literature, the effect is more likely caused by the process of traveling resulting in travel fatigue. 27 Travelers may suffer from symptoms such as
Kathryn E. Phillips and Will G. Hopkins
prestigious tennis tournaments. The authors concluded that home advantage was greatest when the pressure and rewards of winning a match were high, highlighting a supportive crowd, lack of travel fatigue, acclimatization, and familiarity with the environment as potential mechanisms for the improved