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Flight Path and Scheduling Effects on Perceived Jet Lag, Fatigue, and Sleep in Footballers Traveling to and From National Teams

Ewan Clements, Fabian Ehrmann, Andrew Clark, Mark Jones, Alan McCall, and Rob Duffield

National football (soccer) teams often require athletes to undertake extensive travel from different club locations into a single competition or camp location. The diversity of travel for athletes spread around the world results in a range of travel-induced states on arrival at camp. 1 Factors

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Subjective Sleep Patterns and Jet Lag Symptoms of Junior Netball Players Prior to and During an International Tournament: A Case Study

Jonathon R. Lever, Dina C. Janse van Rensburg, Audrey Jansen van Rensburg, Peter Fowler, and Hugh H.K. Fullagar

Long-haul transmeridian travel is a frequent requirement for athletes competing at the highest level. 1 , 2 Such travel can lead to the deleterious, combined effects of travel fatigue and jet lag which typically require 1 day per time zone crossed east and half a day per time zone crossed west to

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Perspectives on Postmatch Fatigue From 300 Elite European Soccer Players

Valter Di Salvo, Daniele Bonanno, Mattia Modonutti, Andrea Scanavino, Claudio Donatelli, Fabio Pigozzi, and Lorenzo Lolli

optimal timing for evaluation. 15 Likewise, a general understanding of whether other factors, such as away match with travel as in the context of Union of European Football Associations competitions, 16 pose an additional burden to the training and match cycle management throughout a competitive season

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Costing Participation in Sport: The Best Option Dilemma of a Student-Athlete

Michael Alcorn, Gashaw Abeza, and Norm O’Reilly

cons associated with the numerous factors (e.g., equipment, travel, registration, competition entries, and club-specific characteristics) that impact her choice of which club to compete for in the upcoming summer. Rebecca also needs to consider her living situation at each club, including her housing

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Travel Across More Time Zones Results in Worse Perceived Fatigue and Sleep in National-Team Footballers

Ewan Clements, Fabian Ehrmann, Andrew Clark, Mark Jones, Alan McCall, and Rob Duffield

Travel remains a concern for national-team footballers (soccer players) due to the effects of jet lag and travel fatigue on camp and tournament preparation. 1 The physiological and psychological stresses associated with prolonged air travel and rapid time zone change can negatively influence

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Nutrition for Travel: From Jet lag To Catering

Shona L. Halson, Louise M. Burke, and Jeni Pearce

Domestic and international travel is a common component of an elite athlete’s yearly plan. Track-and-field athletes may travel to weekly competition in different countries during the main season (e.g., Diamond League), whereas distance runners and race walkers may complete less frequently in race

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Running Through Travel Career Progression: Social Worlds and Active Sport Tourism

Thomas J. Aicher, Richard J. Buning, and Brianna L. Newland

Since the early 1990s, inquiry into travel associated with physical activity has grown from disconnected research on sporting activities attached to vacations to a robust body of knowledge on purposeful trips driven by the desire to actively participate in a sporting activity, known as active sport

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Sleep Quality but Not Quantity Altered With a Change in Training Environment in Elite Australian Rules Football Players

Nathan W. Pitchford, Sam J. Robertson, Charli Sargent, Justin Cordy, David J. Bishop, and Jonathan D. Bartlett

Purpose:

To assess the effects of a change in training environment on the sleep characteristics of elite Australian Rules football (AF) players.

Methods:

In an observational crossover trial, 19 elite AF players had time in bed (TIB), total sleep time (TST), sleep efficiency (SE), and wake after sleep onset (WASO) assessed using wristwatch activity devices and subjective sleep diaries across 8-d home and camp periods. Repeated-measures ANOVA determined mean differences in sleep, training load (session rating of perceived exertion [RPE]), and environment. Pearson product–moment correlations, controlling for repeated observations on individuals, were used to assess the relationship between changes in sleep characteristics at home and camp. Cohen effect sizes (d) were calculated using individual means.

Results:

On camp TIB (+34 min) and WASO (+26 min) increased compared with home. However, TST was similar between home and camp, significantly reducing camp SE (–5.82%). Individually, there were strong negative correlations for TIB and WASO (r = -.75 and r = -.72, respectively) and a moderate negative correlation for SE (r = -.46) between home and relative changes on camp. Camp increased the relationship between individual s-RPE variation and TST variation compared with home (increased load r = -.367 vs .051, reduced load r = .319 vs –.033, camp vs home respectively).

Conclusions:

Camp compromised sleep quality due to significantly increased TIB without increased TST. Individually, AF players with higher home SE experienced greater reductions in SE on camp. Together, this emphasizes the importance of individualized interventions for elite team-sport athletes when traveling and/or changing environments.

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The Relationship of Training Load to Physical-Capacity Changes During International Tours in High-Performance Junior Tennis Players

Alistair P. Murphy, Rob Duffield, Aaron Kellett, and Machar Reid

Purpose:

Given the travel that punctuates junior tennis development, an understanding of the changes in fitness owing to touring and the association between training loads (TLs) and fitness on return is vital. The authors investigated physical-capacity changes from pretour to posttour, determining if those changes were related to the TL of athletes on tour.

Methods:

Thirty junior athletes completed fitness testing before and after 4-wk tours. Testing included double-leg countermovement jump (CMJ), dominant single-leg and nondominant single-leg CMJ, speed (5, 10, 20 m), modified 5-0-5 agility (left and right), 10 × 20-m repeated-sprint ability (RSA), and multistage fitness tests. Repeated-measures ANOVAs determined physical-capacity change, with effect-size analysis establishing the magnitude of change. To avoid regression toward the mean, a 1/3-split technique was implemented for comparative analysis (high to low TLs).

Results:

Moderate effects (d = 0.50–0.70) for reductions of up to 3.6% in 5-, 10-, and 20-m speeds were observed. However, all remaining changes were only of trivial to small magnitude (d < 0.40). Closer analysis of the interaction between TL and physical capacities (1/3-split) revealed that subjects who completed the greatest amount of total and tennis TL returned with a greater decline in speed and aerobic capacities (d > 0.80). Furthermore, it was observed that match load dictates on- and off-court TL, with an increase in matches won understandably stunting exposure to off-court TL.

Conclusions:

Specific training should be prescribed on tour to maintain speed characteristics over a 4-wk international tour. On-tour training schedules should be carefully monitored to maximize specific TL exposure after losses on tour.

Open access

Exploring Active Travel and Leisure-Time Physical Activity Relationships With Cognition Among Older Adults

Madhura Phansikar and Sean P. Mullen

( Angevaren et al., 2007 ). Although LTPA is beneficial for improving a variety of health outcomes, it is less clear whether non-LTPA offers similar benefits. One type of non-LTPA is known as active travel , generally described as walking or cycling to and from places for 10 or more minutes. Although active