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Shona L. Halson, Louise M. Burke and Jeni Pearce

Domestic and international travel is a common component of an elite athlete’s yearly plan. Track-and-field athletes may travel to weekly competition in different countries during the main season (e.g., Diamond League), whereas distance runners and race walkers may complete less frequently in race

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Thomas J. Aicher, Richard J. Buning and Brianna L. Newland

Since the early 1990s, inquiry into travel associated with physical activity has grown from disconnected research on sporting activities attached to vacations to a robust body of knowledge on purposeful trips driven by the desire to actively participate in a sporting activity, known as active sport

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Madhura Phansikar and Sean P. Mullen

( Angevaren et al., 2007 ). Although LTPA is beneficial for improving a variety of health outcomes, it is less clear whether non-LTPA offers similar benefits. One type of non-LTPA is known as active travel , generally described as walking or cycling to and from places for 10 or more minutes. Although active

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Erja Portegijs, Erik J. Timmermans, Maria V. Castell, Elaine M. Dennison, Florian Herbolsheimer, Federica Limongi, Suzan van der Pas, Laura A. Schaap, Natasja van Schoor and Dorly J.H. Deeg

Currently, it is established that even low-intensity activities, such as travel-related walking and cycling, contribute to maintaining health and functioning in older adults ( Varma et al., 2014 ). With age, participation in sports and exercise declines, while the relative contribution of time and

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Peter M. Fowler, Wade Knez, Heidi R. Thornton, Charli Sargent, Amy E. Mendham, Stephen Crowcroft, Joanna Miller, Shona Halson and Rob Duffield

The interrelated impact of travel-induced fatigue and jet lag symptoms can negatively affect cognitive and physical performance following long-haul transmeridian air travel and is of concern for athletic populations. 1 – 3 Conditions encountered during travel, such as the uncomfortable seating

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Yong Yang, Sheng Li, Kai Zhang, Xiaoling Xiang, Zhigang Li, SangNam Ahn and James Murphy

declines in functions. Daily smartphone use may impact our behaviors through complex pathways, and one example is its impact on daily travel ( Jamal, Habib, & Khan, 2017 ). In the short term, daily smartphone use may decrease daily travel by substituting some utilitarian travels. Smartphone use makes it

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Sarah M. Coppola, Philippe C. Dixon, Boyi Hu, Michael Y.C. Lin and Jack T. Dennerlein

Today’s lightweight notebook and tablet computers employ thinner keyboards than earlier models. These designs must sacrifice key travel distance as evidenced by new devices with key travel distances lying outside the current 1.5- to 6.0-mm standards. 1 For example, the Microsoft Surface Pro 4’s

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Nathan W. Pitchford, Sam J. Robertson, Charli Sargent, Justin Cordy, David J. Bishop and Jonathan D. Bartlett

Purpose:

To assess the effects of a change in training environment on the sleep characteristics of elite Australian Rules football (AF) players.

Methods:

In an observational crossover trial, 19 elite AF players had time in bed (TIB), total sleep time (TST), sleep efficiency (SE), and wake after sleep onset (WASO) assessed using wristwatch activity devices and subjective sleep diaries across 8-d home and camp periods. Repeated-measures ANOVA determined mean differences in sleep, training load (session rating of perceived exertion [RPE]), and environment. Pearson product–moment correlations, controlling for repeated observations on individuals, were used to assess the relationship between changes in sleep characteristics at home and camp. Cohen effect sizes (d) were calculated using individual means.

Results:

On camp TIB (+34 min) and WASO (+26 min) increased compared with home. However, TST was similar between home and camp, significantly reducing camp SE (–5.82%). Individually, there were strong negative correlations for TIB and WASO (r = -.75 and r = -.72, respectively) and a moderate negative correlation for SE (r = -.46) between home and relative changes on camp. Camp increased the relationship between individual s-RPE variation and TST variation compared with home (increased load r = -.367 vs .051, reduced load r = .319 vs –.033, camp vs home respectively).

Conclusions:

Camp compromised sleep quality due to significantly increased TIB without increased TST. Individually, AF players with higher home SE experienced greater reductions in SE on camp. Together, this emphasizes the importance of individualized interventions for elite team-sport athletes when traveling and/or changing environments.

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Alistair P. Murphy, Rob Duffield, Aaron Kellett and Machar Reid

Purpose:

Given the travel that punctuates junior tennis development, an understanding of the changes in fitness owing to touring and the association between training loads (TLs) and fitness on return is vital. The authors investigated physical-capacity changes from pretour to posttour, determining if those changes were related to the TL of athletes on tour.

Methods:

Thirty junior athletes completed fitness testing before and after 4-wk tours. Testing included double-leg countermovement jump (CMJ), dominant single-leg and nondominant single-leg CMJ, speed (5, 10, 20 m), modified 5-0-5 agility (left and right), 10 × 20-m repeated-sprint ability (RSA), and multistage fitness tests. Repeated-measures ANOVAs determined physical-capacity change, with effect-size analysis establishing the magnitude of change. To avoid regression toward the mean, a 1/3-split technique was implemented for comparative analysis (high to low TLs).

Results:

Moderate effects (d = 0.50–0.70) for reductions of up to 3.6% in 5-, 10-, and 20-m speeds were observed. However, all remaining changes were only of trivial to small magnitude (d < 0.40). Closer analysis of the interaction between TL and physical capacities (1/3-split) revealed that subjects who completed the greatest amount of total and tennis TL returned with a greater decline in speed and aerobic capacities (d > 0.80). Furthermore, it was observed that match load dictates on- and off-court TL, with an increase in matches won understandably stunting exposure to off-court TL.

Conclusions:

Specific training should be prescribed on tour to maintain speed characteristics over a 4-wk international tour. On-tour training schedules should be carefully monitored to maximize specific TL exposure after losses on tour.

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Donald Getz and Aaron McConnell

This article seeks to advance theory pertaining to serious sport tourism, through the application of serious leisure and ego-involvement theory and the analysis of a survey of participants in the TransRockies Challenge mountain-bike event. Participants were questioned postevent about their motives, involvement in their sport, event-related travel, and destination and event preferences. Analysis revealed that most respondents were highly involved in competitive mountain biking, and were primarily motivated by self development through meeting a challenge. Many respondents also participated in a portfolio of other competitive sport events that provided similar personal rewards. Results suggest that many serious sport tourists develop travel careers centered on competitive events. A hypothetical framework for assessing six dimensions of event travel career trajectories is developed, leading to consideration of practical management implications and research needs.