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Alison R. Snyder, April L. Perotti, Kenneth C. Lam and R. Curtis Bay


Electrical stimulation is often used to control edema formation after acute injury. However, it is unknown whether its theoretical benefits translate to benefits in clinical practice.


To systematically review the basic-science literature regarding the effects of high-voltage pulsed stimulation (HVPS) for edema control.

Evidence Acquisition:

CINAHL (1982 to February 2010), PubMed (1966 to February 2010), Medline (1966 to February 2010), and SPORTDiscus (1980 to February 2010) databases were searched for relevant studies using the following keywords: edema, electrical stimulation, high-volt electrical stimulation, and combinations of these terms. Reference sections of relevant studies were hand-searched. Included studies investigated HVPS and its effect on acute edema formation and included outcome measures specific to edema. Eleven studies met the inclusion criteria. Methodological quality and level of evidence were assessed for each included study. Effect sizes were calculated for primary edema outcomes.

Evidence Synthesis:

Studies were critiqued by electrical stimulation treatment parameters: mode of stimulation, polarity, frequency, duration of treatment, voltage, intensity, number of treatments, and overall time of treatments. The available evidence indicates that HVPS administered using negative polarity, pulse frequency of 120 pulses/s, and intensity of 90% visual motor contraction may be effective at curbing edema formation. In addition, the evidence suggests that treatment should be administered in either four 30-min treatment sessions (30-min treatment, 30-min rest cycle for 4 h) or a single, continuous180-min session to achieve the edemasuppressing effects.


These findings suggest that the basic-science literature provides a general list of treatment parameters that have been shown to successfully manage the formation of edema after acute injury in animal subjects. These treatment parameters may facilitate future research related to the effects of HVPS on edema formation in humans and guide practical clinical use.

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Zella E. Moore, Raquel Ciampa, Jaime Wilsnack and Elizabeth Wright

Eating disorders are serious clinical issues that can have severe physical and psychological ramifications. Although prevalence rates of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are low in the general population, it has been reported that prevalence rates are higher among individuals involved in the athletic milieu. Unfortunately, based on the demands of the sport environment, these individuals may be significantly less likely to seek treatment for these disorders, thus may experience dangerous short- and long-term consequences. Yet, even when such athletes do seek help, they often receive psychological treatments that have not been demonstrated to be efficacious among methodologically sound research studies. This article clarifies the current state of eating disorder treatment efficacy so that practitioners working with eating disordered athletic clientele can adopt more ethical and effective treatment practices.

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Christopher J. Burcal, Sunghoon Chung, Madison L. Johnston and Adam B. Rosen

-of-care. Interestingly, in our participants, the test–retest reliability of the FAAM-D was greater than that of FAAM-P, suggesting it may be better suited for serial testing or follow-up with patients. The FAAM is a common tool for assessing treatment efficacy in CAI research. A meta-analysis recently reported grade A

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Caitlin Brinkman, Shelby E. Baez, Francesca Genoese and Johanna M. Hoch

either a goal setting–enhanced rehabilitation experimental group, a therapist-led exercise therapy group, or a non-therapist-led exercise therapy group. At preintervention and postintervention, participants completed the SIRBS to assess self-efficacy and treatment efficacy and the Biering–Sørensen test

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Erik A. Wikstrom, Sajad Bagherian, Nicole B. Cordero and Kyeongtak Song

and McKeon and Wikstrom 8 assessed treatment efficacy within 48 and 72 hours of the final treatment, respectively. This means that the benefits of the final treatment(s) may not have been fully realized by the participants. More importantly, the immediate improvements observed were retained at the

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Moni Syeda, Jason Bartholomew, Shayane Santiago, Jeff Peterson, Russell T. Baker and Scott W. Cheatham

clinicians/researchers makes it difficult to assess treatment efficacy of IASTM, or that of individual IASTM protocols, as a general modality or for performance enhancement. Thus, there is a need for researchers to better articulate and standardize the treatment protocols utilized, as well as to increase the

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Selvin Balki and Hanım Eda Göktas¸

.aott.2016.03.005 27784622 10.1016/j.aott.2016.03.005 11. Bassett K , Lingman S , Ellis R . The use and treatment efficacy of kinaesthetic taping for musculoskeletal conditions: a systematic review . N Z J Physiother . 2010 ; 38 : 56 – 60 . 12. Ferreira R , Resende R , Roriz P . The

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Yuko Hashimoto, Ko Matsudaira, Susumu S. Sawada, Yuko Gando, Ryoko Kawakami, Chihiro Kinugawa, Takashi Okamoto, Koji Tsukamoto, Motohiko Miyachi, Hisashi Naito and Steven N. Blair

support their co-care: a qualitative study . BMJ Open . 2016 ; 6 ( 12 ): 014007 . PubMed doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2016-014007 10.1136/bmjopen-2016-014007 24. Wertli MM , Rasmussen-Barr E , Held U , Weiser S , Bachmann LM , Brunner F . Fear-avoidance beliefs—a moderator of treatment efficacy

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Anna Lina Rahlf, Klaus-Michael Braumann and Astrid Zech

. Osteoarthritis Cartilage . 2007 ; 15 ( 3 ): 273 – 280 . PubMed ID: 17052924 doi:10.1016/j.joca.2006.09.001 17052924 10.1016/j.joca.2006.09.001 40. Bassett KT , Lingman SA , Ellis R . The use and treatment efficacy of kinaesthetic taping for musculoskeletal conditions: a systematic review . NZ J

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Kayla E. Boehm, Blaine C. Long, Mitchell T. Millar and Kevin C. Miller

-analysis . Phys Sportsmed . 2014 ; 42 : 48 – 57 . PubMed ID: 24875972 doi:10.3810/psm.2014.05.2057 24875972 10.3810/psm.2014.05.2057 9. Bassett K , Lingman S , Ellis R . The use and treatment efficacy of kinaesthetic taping for musculoskeletal conditions: a systematic review . NZ J Physiother . 2010