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Emanuele D’Artibale, Maheswaran Rohan, and John B. Cronin

evidence to better inform future regulations, performance-related strategies, and safety procedures. Speed of Racing Across the four “5-year eras” of racing, the trend analysis showed an increase in the MS of the top 10 riders leading the competitions, meaning that the races became significantly faster

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Heather Kennedy, Bradley J. Baker, Jeremy S. Jordan, and Daniel C. Funk

activity is changing over time to help explain participation trends for distance running events. The relationship between running involvement and participants’ characteristics highlights potential indicators useful in a trend analysis. Based on the mixed empirical support regarding the relationship between

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Nicholas P. Davidson, James Du, and Michael D. Giardina

Twitter accounts, a symmetric pattern between the sharing of positive and negative sentiments by fans was also captured. Figure 3 —Data visualization of trend analysis. Discussion and Implications This mixed emotional response has been well manifested in the reality of professional wrestling during the

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Nathalie Alexander and Hermann Schwameder

While inclined walking is a frequent daily activity, muscle forces during this activity have rarely been examined. Musculoskeletal models are commonly used to estimate internal forces in healthy populations, but these require a priori validation. The aim of this study was to compare estimated muscle activity using a musculoskeletal model with measured EMG data during inclined walking. Ten healthy male participants walked at different inclinations of 0°, ± 6°, ± 12°, and ± 18° on a ramp equipped with 2 force plates. Kinematics, kinetics, and muscle activity of the musculus (m.) biceps femoris, m. rectus femoris, m. vastus lateralis, m. tibialis anterior, and m. gastrocnemius lateralis were recorded. Agreement between estimated and measured muscle activity was determined via correlation coefficients, mean absolute errors, and trend analysis. Correlation coefficients between estimated and measured muscle activity for approximately 69% of the conditions were above 0.7. Mean absolute errors were rather high with only approximately 38% being ≤ 30%. Trend analysis revealed similar estimated and measured muscle activities for all muscles and tasks (uphill and downhill walking), except m. tibialis anterior during uphill walking. This model can be used for further analysis in similar groups of participants.

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Sandra K. Hunter, Martin W. Thompson, and Roger D. Adams

The purposes of this study were to investigate the rate of change with age of simple lower-limb reaction time (RT) in women and determine the relationship among RT. strength, and physical activity. Independent, community-dwelling women aged 20–89 years (N = 217) were assessed for knee-extension RT, maximal voluntary isometric contractions of the knee extensors (KE), and physical activity level. Trend analysis by ANOVA and regression analysis on RT were performed. Lower-limb RT increased and KE strength and physical activity level decreased linearly across age groups (p < .001). Active women had faster RTs than those of inactive women of the same age (p < .01). From multiple-regression analysis on RT, only 1 predictor variable. KE strength, emerged. Stronger women had faster RTs than those of weaker women (p < .0001), regardless of age and physical activity. Although RT was slower in older women, higher levels of strength and physical activity were associated with faster RTs in this group.

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Dennis R. Howard

The extent to which American adults reported participating in selected sport and fitness activities over the past decade was examined. Data were obtained from Simmons Market Research Bureau, Inc., which produces annually the largest and most representative measure of adult sport, recreation, and fitness participation in the United States. Despite optimistic projections for sustained growth in participation rates by sport and fitness industry representatives, trend analysis revealed that participation in all but one of the activities examined had declined substantially. For each of the sport and fitness activities analyzed, active participation was confined to a very small percentage of the total adult population. Participants were divided into three segments (light, medium, and heavy) based on the frequency of their participation. Segment analysis supported the core/fringe concept—a small, active core of heavy users accounted for the majority of total participation volume, particularly in sport activities. Analysis of gender differences found female representation as a proportion of total participation declined substantially over the decade in racquetball, tennis, and jogging. Implications for professional practice and suggestions for future research are discussed.

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Delphine De Smedt, Els Clays, Christof Prugger, Johan De Sutter, Zlatko Fras, Guy De Backer, Dragan Lovic, Anneleen Baert, Kornelia Kotseva, and Dirk De Bacquer

Background:

The study aim was to assess the physical activity levels as well as the intention to become physically active in patients with stable coronary heart disease (CHD) with a special focus on the association with their risk profile.

Methods:

Analyses are based on the cross-sectional EUROASPIRE IV surveys. Information was available on 8966 patients in EUROASPIRE III and on 7998 patients in EUROASPIRE IV. Physical activity level according to patients risk profile and their medical management was assessed, the intention to become physically active was investigated and a time trend analysis was performed.

Results:

A better cardiovascular risk profile as well as receiving physical activity advice or weight loss advice was associated with better physical activity levels. The physical activity status improved significantly over time, the proportion of patients reporting vigorous physical activity for at least 20 minutes ≥ 3 times/week increased from 14.1% to 20.2% (P < .001). Similarly, a significantly greater proportion of patients are in the maintenance stage (36.6% vs. 27.4%) and a smaller proportion in the precontemplation stage (43.2% vs. 52.3%).

Conclusion:

Although an increase was seen in the proportion of patients being adequately physical active, physical activity levels remain suboptimal in many CHD patients.

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Kathleen B. Watson, Susan A. Carlson, Tiffany Humbert-Rico, Dianna D. Carroll, and Janet E. Fulton

Background:

Less than one-third of U.S. adults walk for transportation. Public health strategies to increase transportation walking would benefit from knowing what adults think is a reasonable distance to walk. Our purpose was to determine 1) what adults think is a reasonable distance and amount of time to walk and 2) whether there were differences in minutes spent transportation walking by what adults think is reasonable.

Methods:

Analyses used a cross-sectional nationwide adult sample (n = 3653) participating in the 2010 Summer ConsumerStyles mail survey.

Results:

Most adults (> 90%) think transportation walking is reasonable. However, less than half (43%) think walking a mile or more or for 20 minutes or more is reasonable. What adults think is reasonable is similar across most demographic subgroups, except for older adults (≥ 65 years) who think shorter distances and times are reasonable. Trend analysis that adjust for demographic characteristics indicates adults who think longer distances and times are reasonable walk more.

Conclusions:

Walking for short distances is acceptable to most U.S. adults. Public health programs designed to encourage longer distance trips may wish to improve supports for transportation walking to make walking longer distances seem easier and more acceptable to most U.S. adults.

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Daniel Gould, Linda Petlichkoff, and Robert S. Weinberg

Two studies were conducted to examine antecedents of, relationships between, and temporal changes in the cognitive anxiety, somatic anxiety, and the self-confidence components of the Martens, Burton, Vealey, Bump, and Smith (1983) newly developed Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (CSAI-2). In addition, the prediction that cognitive and somatic anxiety should differentially influence performance was examined. In Study 1, 37 elite intercollegiate wrestlers were administered the CSAI-2 immediately before two different competitions, whereas in Study 2, 63 female high school volleyball players completed the CSAI-2 on five different occasions (1 week, 48 hrs, 24 hrs, 2 hrs, and 20 min) prior to a major tournament. The results were analyzed using multiple regression, multivariate multiple regression, univariate and multivariate analyses of variance, and general linear model trend analysis techniques. The findings supported the scale development work of Martens and his colleagues by verifying that the CSAI-2 assesses three separate components of state anxiety. A number of other important findings also emerged. First, the prediction was confirmed that somatic anxiety increases during the time leading to competition, while cognitive anxiety and confidence remain constant. Second, CSAI-2 subscales were found to have different antecedents, although the precise predictions of Martens and his colleagues were not supported. Third, the prediction that cognitive anxiety would be a more powerful predictor of performance than somatic anxiety was only partially supported. Fourth, the prediction that precompetitive anxiety differences between experienced and inexperienced athletes initially found by Fenz (1975) result from somatic anxiety changes was not supported. It was concluded that the CSAI-2 shows much promise as a multidimensional sport-specific state anxiety inventory, although more research is needed to determine how and why specific antecedent factors influence various CSAI-2 components and to examine the predicted relationships between CSAI-2 components and performance.

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Nili Steinberg, Roger Adams, Oren Tirosh, Janet Karin, and Gordon Waddington

times (Times A, B, C, and D). To examine performance over time within the ANOVA, the orthogonal polynomial trend analysis option was selected for the Time factor. This trend analysis uses the available degrees of freedom to generate independent tests for different function shapes, these being linear (no