High nonfasting triacylglycerol (TAG) concentrations are an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. 1 The postprandial state represents the habitual metabolic state for most individuals consuming regular meals each day with the fasted state only occurring in the first hours of the
Jesudas E. Menon, David J. Stensel, Keith Tolfrey and Stephen F. Burns
Ching T. Lye, Swarup Mukherjee and Stephen F. Burns
Plant sterols (PS) can reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) at intakes of ∼2 g/day ( Catapano et al., 2016 ; Gylling et al., 2014 ), but accumulating evidence also implicates them in the reduction of fasting triacylglycerol (TAG), with greater reductions seen in individuals with
Alice Emily Thackray, Laura Ann Barrett and Keith Tolfrey
Eleven healthy girls (mean ± SD: age 12.1 ± 0.6 years) completed three 2-day conditions in a counterbalanced, crossover design. On day 1, participants either walked at 60 (2)% peak oxygen uptake (energy deficit 1.55[0.20] MJ), restricted food energy intake (energy deficit 1.51[0.25] MJ) or rested. On day 2, capillary blood samples were taken at predetermined intervals throughout the 6.5 hr postprandial period before, and following, the ingestion of standardized breakfast and lunch meals. Fasting plasma triacylglycerol concentrations (TAG) was 29% and 13% lower than rest control in moderate-intensity exercise (effect size [ES] = 1.39, p = .01) and energy-intake restriction (ES = 0.57, p = .02) respectively; moderate-intensity exercise was 19% lower than energy-intake restriction (ES = 0.82, p = .06). The moderate-intensity exercise total area under the TAG versus time curve was 21% and 13% lower than rest control (ES = 0.71, p = .004) and energy-intake restriction (ES = 0.39, p = .06) respectively; energy-intake restriction was marginally lower than rest control (-10%; ES = 0.32, p = .12). An exercise-induced energy deficit elicited a greater reduction in fasting plasma TAG with a trend for a larger attenuation in postprandial plasma TAG than an isoenergetic diet-induced energy deficit in healthy girls.
Keith A. Shannon, Robynn M. Shannon, John N. Clore, Chris Gennings, Beverly J. Warren and Jeffrey A. Potteiger
To determine whether ethnicity influences postprandial lipemia after a bout of aerobic exercise.
Randomized crossover design. Healthy White (W; n = 6) and African American (AA; n = 6) women (age, W 27.0 ± 3.3 yr, AA 21.6 ± 1.4 yr; body-mass index, W 25.0 ± 0.93 kg/m2, AA 25.8 ± 0.79 kg/m2) participated in 2 treatments (control and exercise), each conducted over 2 d. On d 1, participants rested (control) or walked at 60% of maximal oxygen uptake for 90 min (exercise) and then consumed a meal. On d 2, after a 12-hr overnight fast, participants consumed an oral fat-tolerance test (OFTT) meal of 1.7 g fat, 1.65 g carbohydrate, and 0.25 g protein per kg fat-free mass. Blood was collected premeal and at 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 hr post-OFTT and analyzed for triacylglycerol (TAG), glucose, and insulin. Areas under the curve (AUCs) were calculated for each blood variable.
A significantly lower TAG AUC was observed for AA (0.86 ± 0.24 mmol · L−1 · 6 hr−1) after exercise than for W (2.25 ± .50 mmol · L−1 · 6 hr−1). Insulin AUC was significantly higher for AA after exercise (366.2 ± 19.9 mmol · L−1 · 6 hr−1) than for the control (248.1 ± 29.2 mmol · L−1 · 6 hr−1).
The data indicate that exercise performed ~13 hr before an OFTT significantly reduces postprandial lipemia in AA compared with W. It appears that AA women have an increased ability to dispose of TAG after exercise and a high-fat meal.
Keith Tolfrey, Alice Emily Thackray and Laura Ann Barrett
Exaggerated postprandial triacylglycerol concentrations (TAG) independently predict future cardiovascular events. Acute exercise and diet interventions attenuate postprandial TAG in adults. This paper aims to examine the exercise postprandial lipemia studies published to date in young people. Nine studies satisfied the inclusion criteria adopted for this summary. The majority of studies are in boys (22% girls) and have shown a single ~60-min session of moderate-intensity exercise, performed 12-18 hours before a standardized meal, reduces postprandial TAG. Manipulations of exercise duration and intensity suggest an exercise energy expenditure dose-dependent response is not supported directly in healthy young people. Studies investigating alternative exercise bouts have reported lower postprandial TAG after simulated intermittent games activity, high-intensity interval running and cumulative 10-min blocks over several hours, which may appeal to the spontaneous physical activity habits of young people. Although extension of these initial findings is warranted, exercise may be an effective strategy to promote regular benefits in TAG metabolism in children and adolescents; this may contribute to an improved cardiovascular disease risk profile early in life.
Masashi Miyashita, Stephen F. Burns and David J. Stensel
The current study investigated the acute effects of accumulating short bouts of running on circulating concentrations of postprandial triacylglycerol (TAG) and C-reactive protein (CRP). Ten men, age 21–32 yr, completed two 1-d trials. On 1 occasion participants ran at 70% of maximum oxygen uptake in six 5-min bouts (i.e., 8:30, 10, and 11:30 a.m. and 1, 2:30, and 4 p.m.) with 85 min rest between runs. On another occasion participants rested throughout the day. In both trials, participants consumed test meals at 9 a.m. and 12 p.m. In each trial, venous blood samples were collected at 8:30, 10, and 11:30 a.m. and 1, 2:30, 4, and 5:30 p.m. for plasma TAG measurement and at 8:30 a.m. and 5:30 p.m. for serum CRP measurement. Total area under the curve for plasma TAG concentration versus time was 10% lower on the exercise trial than the control trial (M ± SEM: 13.5 ± 1.8 vs. 15.0 ± 1.9 mmol · 9 hr−1 · L−1; p = .004). Serum CRP concentrations did not differ between trials or over time. This study demonstrates that accumulating short bouts of running reduces postprandial plasma TAG concentrations (a marker for cardiovascular disease risk) but does not alter serum CRP concentrations.
Martin Tan, Rachel Chan Moy Fat, Yati N. Boutcher and Stephen H. Boutcher
High-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE) such as the 30-s Wingate test attenuates postprandial triacylglycerol (TG), however, the ability of shorter versions of HIIE to reduce postprandial TG is undetermined. Thus, the effect of 8-s sprinting bouts of HIIE on blood TG levels of 12 females after consumption of a high-fat meal (HFM) was examined. Twelve young, sedentary women (BMI 25.1 ± 2.3 kg/m2; age 21.3 ± 2.1 years) completed a maximal oxygen uptake test and then on different days underwent either an exercise or a no-exercise postprandial TG condition. Both conditions involved consuming a HFM after a 12-hr fast. The HFM, in milkshake form provided 4170 kJ (993 Kcal) of energy and 98 g fat. Order was counter-balanced. In the exercise condition participants completed 20-min of HIIE cycling consisting of repeated bouts of 8 s sprint cycling (100–115 rpm) and 12 s of active rest (easy pedaling) 14 hr before consuming the HFM. Blood samples were collected hourly after the HFM for 4 hr. Total postprandial TG was 13% lower, p = .004, in the exercise (5.84 ± 1.08 mmol L−1 4 h−1) compared with the no-exercise condition (6.71 ± 1.63 mmol L−1 4 h−1). In conclusion, HIIE significantly attenuated postprandial TG in sedentary young women.
Julia H. Goedecke, Richard Elmer, Steven C. Dennis, Ingrid Schloss, Timothy D. Noakes and Estelle V. Lambert
The effects of ingesting different amounts of medium-chain triacylglycerol (MCT) and carbohydrate (CHO) on gastric symptoms, fuel metabolism, and exercise performance were measured in 9 endurance-trained cyclists. Participants, 2 hr after a standardized lunch, cycled for 2 hr at 63% of peak oxygen consumption and then performed a simulated 40-km time trial (T trial). During the rides, participants ingested either 10% 14C-glucose (GLU), 10% 14C-GLU + 1.72%MCT(LO-MCT), or 10% l4C-GLU + 3.44%MCT(HI-MCT) solutions: 400 ml at the start of exercise and then 100 ml every lOmin.MCTingestiondid not affect gastrointestinal symptoms. It only raised serum free fatty acid (FFA) and ß-hydroxybutyrate concentrations. Higher FFA and ß-hydroxybutyrate concentrations with MCT ingestion did not affect fuel oxidation or T-trial performance. The high CHO content of the pretrial lunch increased starting plasma insulin levels, which may have promoted CHO oxidation despite elevated circulating FFA concentrations with MCT ingestion.
Julia H. Goedecke, Virginia R. Clark, Timothy D. Noakes and Estelle V. Lambert
The aims of the study were to determine if medium-chain triacylglycerol (MCT), ingested in combination with carbohydrate (CHO), would alter substrate metabolism and improve simulated competitive ultra-endurance cycling performance. Eight endurance-trained cyclists took part in this randomized, single-blind crossover study. On two separate occasions, subjects cycled for 270 min at 50% of peak power output, interspersed with four 75 kJ sprints at 60 min intervals, followed immediately by a 200 kJ time-trial. One hour prior to the exercise trials, subjects ingested either 75 g of CHO or 32 g of MCT, and then ingested 200 mL of a 10% CHO (wt/vol) solution or a 4.3% MCT + 10% CHO (wt/vol) solution every 20 min during the CHO and MCT trials, respectively. During the constant-load phases of the 270 min exercise trial, VO2, RER, and heart rate were measured at 30 min intervals and gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms were recorded. There was no difference in VO2 or RER between the MCT and CHO trials (P = 0.40). Hourly sprint (P = 0.03 for trial x time interaction) and time-trial times (14:30 ± 0.58 vs. 12:36 ± 1:6, respectively, P < 0.001) were slower in the MCT than the CHO trial. Half the subjects experienced GI symptoms with MCT ingestion. In conclusion, MCTs ingested prior to exercise and co-ingested with CHO during exercise did not alter substrate metabolism and significantly compromised sprint performance during prolonged ultra-endurance cycling exercise.
Stephen F. Burns, Masashi Miyashita, Chihoko Ueda and David J. Stensel
The present study examined how multiple bouts of resistance exercise, performed over 1 d, influence 2 risk factors—postprandial triacylglycerol (TAG) and serum C-reactive-protein (CRP) concentrations—associated with coronary heart disease. Twenty-four men age 23.5 (SD 3.4) y completed two 2-d trials, exercise and control, at least 1 wk apart in a counterbalanced randomized design. On day 1 of the exercise trials participants completed 20 sets of 15 repetitions of 5 different resistance exercises divided into five 45-min bouts of exercise—100 sets and 1500 repetitions in total for all exercises. Exercises were performed at 30–40% of 1-repetition maximum. Blood samples were taken before and after exercise. On day 1 of the control trial participants were inactive, with blood samples taken at time points corresponding to the exercise trial. On day 2 of both trials participants consumed a test meal (0.89 g fat, 1.23 g carbohydrate, 0.4 g protein, 60 kJ per kg body mass). Blood samples were obtained fasted and for 6 h post prandially. Total area under the postprandial TAG concentration versus time curve was 12% lower in the exercise than in the control trial (8.76 [3.54] vs. 9.94 [4.31] mmol·L-1·6 h, respectively; P = 0.037). Serum CRP concentrations did not change over the 2 d in the control trial but increased in the exercise trial: trial × time interaction (P = 0.028). Multiple bouts of resistance exercise reduce postprandial TAG concentrations but increase serum CRP concentrations. The extent to which these findings are clinically relevant requires further study.