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Hani Kopetschny, David Rowlands, David Popovich, and Jasmine Thomson

importance of nutrition to endurance performance ( Bentley et al., 2008 ) and the complexity of meeting variable training requirements, the use of nutrition professionals (e.g., sports dietitian) is uncommon among triathletes; nutrition information is predominately sourced from the internet, family, and

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Kate M. Luckin-Baldwin, Claire E. Badenhorst, Ashley J. Cripps, Grant J. Landers, Robert J. Merrells, Max K. Bulsara, and Gerard F. Hoyne

referred to as “half iron” (1.9-km swim, 90-km cycle, and 21.1-km run) and “full iron” (3.8-km swim, 180-km cycle, and 42.2-km run) races the completion of each discipline has a negative influence on the economy of the subsequent discipline. 3 Traditionally, LD triathletes undertake large volumes of

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Justin M. Stanek

Clinical Scenario:

The popularity of compression socks has increased substantially among athletes, particularly those participating in endurance events such as running and triathlon. Companies are increasingly marketing compression stockings to runners, triathletes, and other endurance athletes for the benefits of improved performance and/or decreased recovery time. Originally developed for the treatment of deep-vein thrombosis, compression socks are now marketed as a tool to improve venous return, thus believed to improve both performance and recovery in athletes. The use of compression socks during training aims to help the skeletal-muscle pump, increase deep venous velocity, and/or decrease blood pooling in the calf veins and alleviate delayed-onset muscle soreness. The scenario is a 28-y-old recreational triathlete seeking your advice while training for her first half-Ironman. She occasionally complains of tightness in the calves both during and after running. She wants your opinion on the effectiveness of using compression socks to help her performance and recovery.

Focused Clinical Question:

What is the effectiveness of using graduated compression socks for improving athletic performance and decreasing recovery time in healthy endurance athletes?

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Richard R. Rosenkranz, Chad M. Cook, and Mark D. Haub

Purpose:

To illustrate the effects of low-carbohydrate (LC) and grain-based (GB) diets on body composition, biomarkers, athletic training, and performance in an elite triathlete.

Methods:

The athlete followed 2 dietary interventions for 14 d while maintaining a prescheduled training program. Pre- and post intervention measurements for each diet included plasma and serum samples, resting energy expenditure, body composition, and a performance bike ride.

Results:

Compared with the GB diet, the LC diet elicited more disruptions to training and unfavorable subjective experiences. Total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, ratings of perceived exertion, and heart rate were elevated on the LC diet. Blood insulin, resting lactate, post exercise lactate, and C-reactive protein were lowest on the LC diet.

Conclusion:

The LC diet resulted in both favorable and unfavorable outcomes. The primary observation was a disruption to scheduled training on the LC diet. Researchers should consider how the potential mediating effect of disruptions to training could influence pretest–posttest designs.

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Gyan A. Wijekulasuriya, Vernon G. Coffey, Luke Badham, Fergus O’Connor, Avish P. Sharma, and Gregory R. Cox

thermally challenging environment. Methods Participants A convenience sample of 13 endurance-trained (level 3, >85th percentile VO 2 max) triathletes 23 , 24 were recruited to take part in the study (sex = 9 men/4 women, age = 29.2 [8.4] y, stature = 175.3 [7.6] cm, body mass (BM) = 67.2 [9.0] kg, peak

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Naroa Etxebarria, Shaun D’Auria, Judith M. Anson, David B. Pyne, and Richard A. Ferguson

Purpose:

The patterns of power output in the ~1-h cycle section of Olympic-distance triathlon races are not well documented. Here the authors establish a typical cycling-race profile derived from several International Triathlon Union elite-level draftinglegal triathlon races.

Methods:

The authors collated 12 different race power profiles from elite male triathletes (N = 5, age 25 ± 5 y, body mass 65.5 ± 5.6 kg; mean ± SD) during 7 international races. Power output was recorded using SRM cranks and analyzed with proprietary software.

Results:

The mean power output was 252 ± 33 W, or 3.9 ± 0.5 W/kg in relative terms, with a coefficient of variation of 71% ± 13%. Normalized power (power output an athlete could sustain if intensity were maintained constant without any variability) for the entire cycle section was 291 ± 29 W, or 40 ± 13 W higher than the actual mean power output. There were 34 ± 14 peaks of power output above 600 W and ~18% time spent at >100% of maximal aerobic power.

Conclusion:

Cycling during Olympic-distance triathlon, characterized by frequent and large power variations including repeat supramaximal efforts, equates to a higher workload than cycling at constant power.

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Caio Victor Sousa, Beat Knechtle, and Pantelis Theo Nikolaidis

revised in 2013. Study Design This retrospective cohort study used longitudinal data from over 20 y of 2 master athletes. The age-related performance decline in swimming, cycling, running, and overall race time in 2 of the world’s best ultra-triathletes having completed each more than 200 ultra

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Alannah K. A. McKay, Ida A. Heikura, Louise M. Burke, Peter Peeling, David B. Pyne, Rachel P.L. van Swelm, Coby M. Laarakkers, and Gregory R. Cox

elite triathletes. Given that exercise modality can also influence the postexercise inflammatory response ( Nieman et al., 1998 ), we compared responses between exercise modalities. Methods Participants Four male (mean ±  SD : 22.5 ± 3.0 years, 64.3 ± 4.1 kg, 39 ± 9 mm for sum of seven skinfolds, 74

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Milos Mallol, David J. Bentley, Lynda Norton, Kevin Norton, Gaizka Mejuto, and Javier Yanci

training such as transition drills for triathletes. 1 Eventually, there comes a point where athletes cannot train longer because higher volumes of training are associated with health problems such as compromised immunity and overuse injuries. 2 There is also the constant problem of finding enough time

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Ed Maunder, Andrew E. Kilding, Christopher J. Stevens, and Daniel J. Plews

, the beneficial observed thermoregulatory 9 and hypothesized metabolic 1 adaptations should be balanced against potential risks to athlete well-being. The purpose of this case study is therefore to describe how a real-world heat stress training camp undertaken by 2 highly trained Ironman triathletes