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Jerry A. Frentsos and Janine T. Baer

Dietary habits were evaluated in 6 elite triathletes (4 male, 2 female). Analysis of 7-day diet records showed mean daily energy and carbohydrate intake to be insufficient to support estimated requirements. Mean intakes of vitamins and most minerals exceeded the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) except zinc and chromium, which did not meet 66% of recommended amounts. Individualized nutrition intervention using the Diabetic Food Exchange System to support performance during training and competition was provided. To improve dietary intake, subjects consumed fortified nutrition supplements (Reliv, Inc.) before and after daily training. Follow-up 7-day diet records showed that average energy intake and percentage of energy from carbohydrate increased, as did intakes of zinc and chromium. Triathletes' performance in a short course triathlon was improved compared to a similar competition completed prior to the nutrition intervention. Following the intervention, triathletes were able to meet recommended daily energy, macronutrient, and micronutrient intakes and improve endurance performance.

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Hani Kopetschny, David Rowlands, David Popovich and Jasmine Thomson

importance of nutrition to endurance performance ( Bentley et al., 2008 ) and the complexity of meeting variable training requirements, the use of nutrition professionals (e.g., sports dietitian) is uncommon among triathletes; nutrition information is predominately sourced from the internet, family, and

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Ruth Boat and Ian M. Taylor

The study explored patterns of change in a number of potentially performance-related variables (i.e., fatigue, social support, self-efficacy, autonomous motivation, mental skills) during the lead-up to a competitive triathlon, and whether these patterns of change differed for relatively superior versus inferior performers. Forty-two triathletes completed an inventory measuring the study variables every other day during a 2-week period leading up to competition. Performance was assessed using participants’ race time, and using a self-referenced relative score compared with personal best times. Multilevel growth curve analyses revealed significant differences in growth trajectories over the 2-week period in mental skills use, social support, and fatigue. The results provide novel insight into how athletes’ fluctuating psychological state in the 2 weeks before competition may be crucial in determining performance.

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Alannah K. A. McKay, Ida A. Heikura, Louise M. Burke, Peter Peeling, David B. Pyne, Rachel P.L. van Swelm, Coby M. Laarakkers and Gregory R. Cox

elite triathletes. Given that exercise modality can also influence the postexercise inflammatory response ( Nieman et al., 1998 ), we compared responses between exercise modalities. Methods Participants Four male (mean ±  SD : 22.5 ± 3.0 years, 64.3 ± 4.1 kg, 39 ± 9 mm for sum of seven skinfolds, 74

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Milos Mallol, David J. Bentley, Lynda Norton, Kevin Norton, Gaizka Mejuto and Javier Yanci

training such as transition drills for triathletes. 1 Eventually, there comes a point where athletes cannot train longer because higher volumes of training are associated with health problems such as compromised immunity and overuse injuries. 2 There is also the constant problem of finding enough time

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Ed Maunder, Andrew E. Kilding, Christopher J. Stevens and Daniel J. Plews

, the beneficial observed thermoregulatory 9 and hypothesized metabolic 1 adaptations should be balanced against potential risks to athlete well-being. The purpose of this case study is therefore to describe how a real-world heat stress training camp undertaken by 2 highly trained Ironman triathletes

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Holly Wethington, Claudia Flowers, Michael Turner and Rita DiGioacchino DeBate

Focusing on female triathletes, this study was an exploration of behaviors and attitudes that may lead to disordered eating among female triathletes. One hundred and eighty-eight female triathletes residing in the U.S. completed an Internet-based questionnaire comprised of measures for disordered eating, body size distortion and dissatisfaction, and food consumption. Statistically significant relationships were identified regarding Preoccupation with Weight and Food Consumption (r= 0.52, p=0.005), Oral Control and Food Consumption (r= 0.32, p=0.04), and Food Restriction and Food Consumption (r= −0.30, p=0.04). Body Size Distortion was also significantly correlated to Food Consumption (r= −0.19, p=0.01), especially among the Sprint distance competitors (r= −0.21, p=0.02). Based upon the findings we suggest food restriction, body size distortion, and disordered eating attitudes are apparent among female triathletes, especially those who are club level athletes and short distance competitors.

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Iñigo Mujika

Detailed accounts of the training programs followed by today’s elite triathletes are lacking in the sport-science literature. This study reports on the training program of a world-class female triathlete preparing to compete in the London 2012 Olympic Games. Over 50 wk, she performed 796 sessions (303 swim, 194 bike, 254 run, 45 strength training), ie, 16 ± 4 sessions/wk (mean ± SD). Swim, bike, and run training volumes were, respectively, 1230 km (25 ± 8 km/wk), 427 h (9 ± 3 h/wk), and 250 h (5 ± 2 h/wk). Training tasks were categorized and prescribed based on heart-rate values and/or speeds and power outputs associated with different blood lactate concentrations. Training performed at intensities below her individual lactate threshold (ILT), between the ILT and the onset of blood lactate accumulation (OBLA), and above the OBLA for swim were 74% ± 6%, 16% ± 2%, 10% ± 2%; bike 88% ± 3%, 10% ± 1%, 2.1% ± 0.2%; and run 85% ± 2%, 8.0% ± 0.3%, 6.7% ± 0.3%. Training organization was adapted to the busy competition calendar (18 events, of which 8 were Olympic-distance triathlons) and continuously responded to emerging information. Training volumes were 35–80% higher than those previously reported for elite male and female triathletes, but training intensity and tapering strategies successfully followed recommended best practice for endurance athletes. This triathlete placed 7th in London 2012, and her world ranking improved from 14th to 8th at the end of 2012.

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Wade L. Knez and Jonathan M. Peake

Ultraendurance exercise training places large energy demands on athletes and causes a high turnover of vitamins through sweat losses, metabolism, and the musculoskeletal repair process. Ultraendurance athletes may not consume sufficient quantities or quality of food in their diet to meet these needs. Consequently, they may use oral vitamin and mineral supplements to maintain their health and performance. We assessed the vitamin and mineral intake of ultraendurance athletes in their regular diet, in addition to oral vitamin and mineral supplements. Thirty-seven ultraendurance triathletes (24 men and 13 women) completed a 7-day nutrition diary including a questionnaire to determine nutrition adequacy and supplement intake. Compared with dietary reference intakes for the general population, both male and female triathletes met or exceeded all except for vitamin D. In addition, female athletes consumed slightly less than the recommended daily intake for folate and potassium; however, the difference was trivial. Over 60% of the athletes reported using vitamin supplements, of which vitamin C (97.5%), vitamin E (78.3%), and multivitamins (52.2%) were the most commonly used supplements. Almost half (47.8%) the athletes who used supplements did so to prevent or reduce cold symptoms. Only 1 athlete used supplements on formal medical advice. Vitamin C and E supplementation was common in ultraendurance triathletes, despite no evidence of dietary deficiency in these 2 vitamins.

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Nancy J. Rehrer, Monique van Kemenade, Wineke Meester, Fred Brouns and Wim H.M. Saris

This study examined the relationship between gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms and dietary intake in triathletes. Fifty-five male triathletes (age 31 ±6 yrs) were surveyed regarding the most recently completed half Iron Man triathlon. Questions were asked regarding GI symptoms and dietary intake. Fifty-two percent complained of eructation and 48% of flatulence. Other symptoms were abdominal bloating, vomiting urge, vomiting, nausea, stomachache, intestinal cramps, and diarrhea. More symptoms occurred while running than at other times. All individuals who had eaten within 30 min of the start vomited while swimming. Fat and protein intake was greater in those who vomited or had the urge to vomit than in those without these symptoms. Of the former, 93% had consumed a hypertonic beverage. Forty percent of those who drank a hypertonic beverage and only 11% of those who drank an iso-or hypotonic beverage had severe complaints. Four of five individuals with stomachache had consumed a strongly hypertonic beverage. All subjects with intestinal cramps had eaten fiber-rich foods in the pre race meal; only 10% of those without cramps had done so.