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Aaron Coutts, Peter Reaburn, Kerry Mummery, and Mark Holmes

The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of prior glycerol loading on competitive Olympic distance triathlon performance (ODT) in high ambient temperatures. Ten (3 female and 7 male) well-trained triathletes (VO2max = 58.4 ±2.4 ml-kg−1 min−1; best ODT time = 131.5 ± 2.6 min) completed 2 ODTs (1.5-km swim, 40-km bicycle, 10-km run) in a randomly assigned (placebo/ glycerol) double-blind study conducted 2 weeks apart. The wet-bulb globe temperature (outdoors) was 30.5 + 0.5 °C (relative humidity: 46.3 ± 1.1%; hot) and 25.4 + 0.2 °C (relative humidity: 51.7 ± 2.4%; warm) for day 1 and day 2, respectively. The glycerol solution consisted of 1.2 g of glycerol per kilogram of body mass (BM) and 25 ml of a 0.75 g · kg−1 BM carbohydrate solution (Gatorade®) and was consumed over a 60-min period, 2 hours prior to each ODT. Measures of performance (ODT time), fluid retention, urine output, blood plasma volume changes, and sweat loss were obtained prior to and during the ODT in both the glycerol and placebo conditions. Following glycerol loading, the increase in ODT completion time between the hot and warm conditions was significantly less than the placebo group (placebo 11:40 min vs. glycerol 1:47 min; p < .05). The majority of the performance improvement occurred during the final 10-km run leg of ODT on the hot day. Hyperhydration occurred as a consequence of a reduced diuresis (p < .05) and a subsequent increase in fluid retention (p < .05). No significant differences were observed in sweat loss between the glycerol and placebo conditions. Plasma volume expansion during the loading period was significantly greater (p < .05) on the hot day when glycerol appeared to attenuate the performance decrement in the heat. The present results suggest that glycerol hyperhydration prior to ODT in high ambient temperatures may provide some protection against the negative performance effects of competing in the heat.

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Amy Silder, Kyle Gleason, and Darryl G. Thelen

We investigated how varying seat tube angle (STA) and hand position affect muscle kinematics and activation patterns during cycling in order to better understand how triathlon-specific bike geometries might mitigate the biomechanical challenges associated with the bike-to-run transition. Whole body motion and lower extremity muscle activities were recorded from 14 triathletes during a series of cycling and treadmill running trials. A total of nine cycling trials were conducted in three hand positions (aero, drops, hoods) and at three STAs (73°, 76°, 79°). Participants also ran on a treadmill at 80, 90, and 100% of their 10-km triathlon race pace. Compared with cycling, running necessitated significantly longer peak musculotendon lengths from the uniarticular hip flexors, knee extensors, ankle plantar flexors and the biarticular hamstrings, rectus femoris, and gastrocnemius muscles. Running also involved significantly longer periods of active muscle lengthening from the quadriceps and ankle plantar flexors. During cycling, increasing the STA alone had no affect on muscle kinematics but did induce significantly greater rectus femoris activity during the upstroke of the crank cycle. Increasing hip extension by varying the hand position induced an increase in hamstring muscle activity, and moved the operating lengths of the uniarticular hip flexor and extensor muscles slightly closer to those seen during running. These combined changes in muscle kinematics and coordination could potentially contribute to the improved running performances that have been previously observed immediately after cycling on a triathlon-specific bicycle.

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Naroa Etxebarria, Jackson Wright, Hamish Jeacocke, Cristian Mesquida, and David B. Pyne

Olympic-distance triathlon comprises a sequential 1.5-km swim, 40-km cycle, and 10-km run. Although the ability to perform the 3 disciplines at a high level is critical for competitive success, 1 , 2 it appears the run section is the main determinant in Olympic-distance triathlon. 2 – 4 The last

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Marcus Colon, Andrew Hodgson, Eimear Donlon, and James E.J. Murphy

around 4 years of biological age. While, Ludlow et al. ( 2008 ) and Savela et al. ( 2013 ) have indicated that the relationship is an inverted U curve where moderate-physical activity has beneficial effects on TL compared with both low- and high-intensity exercises. Triathlon is an endurance multisport

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Jacob N. Kisiolek, Kyle A. Smith, Daniel A. Baur, Brandon D. Willingham, Margaret C. Morrissey, Samantha M. Leyh, Patrick G. Saracino, Cheri D. Mah, and Michael J. Ormsbee

sleep time (TST) and race completion time during each stage of a 3-day ultra-endurance triathlon (stage 1: 10-km swim, 146-km cycle; stage 2: 276-km cycle; and stage 3: 84.4-km run). Additionally, the secondary purpose of this investigation was to determine the relationships between sleep quality (SOL

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Caio Victor Sousa, Beat Knechtle, and Pantelis Theo Nikolaidis

It is well known that athletic performance declines with increasing age. 1 This has been shown for different sport disciplines such as swimming, 2 running, 1 and multisport events such as triathlon with the combination of swimming, cycling, and running. 3 – 5 The age-related performance decline

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Sunita Potgieter, Hattie H. Wright, and Carine Smith

supplementation to improve performance ( Bell et al., 1998 ; Bridge & Jones, 2006 ; Christensen et al., 2017 ; De Morree et al., 2014 ; Glaister et al., 2016 ; Meeusen et al., 2013 ; Stadheim et al., 2013 ). In terms of triathlon specifically, similar use of caffeine has been reported. An astounding 89% of

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Kate M. Luckin-Baldwin, Claire E. Badenhorst, Ashley J. Cripps, Grant J. Landers, Robert J. Merrells, Max K. Bulsara, and Gerard F. Hoyne

Triathlon success is predominantly determined by the athletes’ maximum sustained power or pace during competition and the energy cost associated with maintaining this movement. 1 The energy cost associated with this sustained power or pace is known as the athletes’ economy, defined as the

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Matthew Lamont and Sheranne Fairley

one day after major Ironman triathlon events in Australia and is run by members of a distinct subworld within the broader social world of Australian triathletes. The Beer Mile occurs on the periphery of Ironman triathlon events and is unsanctioned by event organizers. This paper examines the language

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Gregoire P. Millet, David J. Bentley, and Veronica E. Vleck

The relationships between sport sciences and sports are complex and changeable, and it is not clear how they reciprocally influence each other. By looking at the relationship between sport sciences and the “new” (~30-year-old) sport of triathlon, together with changes in scientific fields or topics that have occurred between 1984 and 2006 (278 publications), one observes that the change in the sport itself (eg, distance of the events, wetsuit, and drafting) can influence the specific focus of investigation. The sport-scientific fraternity has successfully used triathlon as a model of prolonged strenuous competition to investigate acute physiological adaptations and trauma, as support for better understanding cross-training effects, and, more recently, as a competitive sport with specific demands and physiological features. This commentary discusses the evolution of the scientific study of triathlon and how the development of the sport has affected the nature of scientific investigation directly related to triathlon and endurance sport in general.