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Todd A. Evans, Jennifer R. Kunkle, Krista M. Zinz, Jessica L. Walter and Craig R. Denegar

Objective:

To assess the efficacy of lidocaine iontophoresis on myofascial trigger-point pain.

Setting:

University athletic training facility.

Design:

Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, repeated-measures.

Subjects:

Twenty-three subjects with sensitive trigger points over the trapezius.

Intervention:

Placebo iontophoresis treatment without current or lidocaine, control treatment using distilled water and normal current dose, medicated treatment using 1% lidocaine and normal current dose.

Main Outcome Measure:

Trigger-point pressure threshold assessed with an algometer.

Results:

ANOVA revealed a significant difference among treatments (F 2,40 = 7.38, P < .01). Post hoc comparisons revealed a significant difference in pressure threshold between the lidocaine treatment and the control (P = .01) and placebo (P = .001) treatments. Effect sizes of .28 and .39, respectively, were found for these comparisons.

Conclusions:

Although the data revealed significant differences between treatments, the small effect sizes and magnitude of the pressure-sensitivity deviation scores suggest that iontophoresis with 1% lidocaine is ineffective in treating trigger points.

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Fahimeh Kamali, Ehsan Sinaei and Maryam Morovati

, and poor posture are the most important causes of shoulder disorders in overhead athletes. 1 Regardless of etiology, shoulder injuries may overload the shoulder girdle muscles and give rise to the development of myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) in the affected muscles. 2 MTrPs are highly irritable

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Simo Ihalainen, Vesa Linnamo, Kaisu Mononen and Sami Kuitunen

Purpose:

To describe the long-term changes in shooting technique in relation to competition performances in elite air-rifle shooters.

Methods:

Seventeen elite shooters completed simulated air-rifle shooting-competition series in 3 consecutive seasons, participating on 15 ± 7 testing occasions. Shooting score and aiming-point-trajectory variables were obtained with an optoelectronic shooting device, and postural-balance variables were measured with force platform. Shooters’ competition results were collected from all international and national competitions during the 3-y period.

Results:

Mean test score, stability of hold, aiming accuracy, cleanness of triggering, and postural balance improved during the 3-y period (ANOVA, time, P < .05−.01). Seasonal mean test results in stability of hold (R = −.70, P = .000) and cleanness of triggering (R = −.75, P = .000) were related to competition performances. Changes in stability of hold (R = −.61, P = .000) and cleanness of triggering (R = −.39, P = .022) were also related to the changes in competition performances. Postural balance in shooting direction was more related to cleanness of triggering (R = .57, P = .000), whereas balance in cross-shooting direction was more related to stability of hold (R = .70, P = .000).

Conclusion:

The shooting-technique testing used in the current study seems to be a valid and useful tool for long-term performance assessment. Stability of hold, cleanness of triggering, and postural balance can be further developed even at the elite level, resulting in improved competition performances.

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Sandra O'Brien Cousins

This study analyzed older women's (age 57–92, N = 32) descriptions of motivating triggers for physical activity. Among active women, activity was triggered by situations such as declining fitness levels, low bone density, more free time, fears about inadequate health care leading to self-care, expectations for reduced aches and pains, awareness of new community programs, and public reports of the health benefits. Semiactive women had doubts about the appropriateness of being active. Inactive people also experienced triggers but seemed firmly committed to a less active lifestyle by reminding themselves that retirement requires no commitments, exercise is not needed if you are healthy, exercise is not appropriate if you are ill, being very busy is a substitute activity, and serving others is less selfish. The findings suggest that active-living interventions might be more effectively aimed at semi active seniors who seem positively disposed to participating but need help to get started or to stay involved.

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Gerold Sattlecker, Michael Buchecker, Christoph Gressenbauer, Erich Müller and Stefan J. Lindinger

Purpose:

To identify biomechanical predictors that distinguish between high- and low-score athletes in biathlon shooting and to determine the relationships among these variables in field testing.

Methods:

Twenty-two biathletes (8 female, 14 male) from the World Cup, the European Cup, and a federal youth squad each fired 3 clips of 5 shots in prone and standing shooting positions without physical load, followed by 2 respective series in both disciplines during a simulated 12.5-km pursuit race on roller skis. Biomechanical variables describing triggering, rifle force in the back shoulder, and body and rifle sway were calculated over the last 0.5 second before firing. For computed linear discriminant analyses, subjects were divided into high- and low-level performers based on mean scores for each condition separately. In addition, correlations among all biomechanical factors were calculated.

Results:

Regarding prone shooting, shoulder force in the rest condition and vertical rifle sway in the race simulation were shown to be main discriminators. Several body- and rifle-sway variables were found to be predictors in standing rest shooting. Body sway across the shooting line discriminated the groups in the standing race situation tendentially. Thus, the main performance predictors changed due to fatigue. Correlations between triggering and rifle sway, shoulder force and rifle sway, and body sway and rifle sway were discovered.

Conclusions:

Referring to the current results, athletes are recommended to focus on vertical rifle sway in prone position and on body sway across the shooting line during standing shooting when fatigued.

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Halla B. Olafsdottir, Sun Wook Kim, Vladimir M. Zatsiorsky and Mark L. Latash

We tested the ability of healthy elderly persons to use anticipatory synergy adjustments (ASAs) prior to a self-triggered perturbation of one of the fingers during a multifinger force production task. An index of a force-stabilizing synergy was computed reflecting covariation of commands to fingers. The subjects produced constant force by pressing with the four fingers of the dominant hand on force sensors against constant upwardly directed forces. The middle finger could be unloaded either by the subject pressing the trigger or unexpectedly by the experimenter. In the former condition, the synergy index showed a drop (interpreted as ASA) prior to the time of unloading. This drop started later and was smaller in magnitude as compared with ASAs reported in an earlier study of younger subjects. At the new steady state, a new sharing pattern of the force was reached. We conclude that aging is associated with a preserved ability to explore the flexibility of the mechanically redundant multifinger system but a decreased ability to use feed-forward adjustments to self-triggered perturbations. These changes may contribute to the documented drop in manual dexterity with age.

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Shannon Kerwin and Alison Doherty

The purpose of this study was to investigate factors that moderate the association between substantive task and process conflicts and personal relationship conflict within Canadian intercollegiate athletic departments. The sample population was administrative office personnel in those departments (i.e., directors, managers, and support staff). Based on previous research and tenets of affective events theory, task participation, trust, cohesion, value dissimilarity, and negative affect were hypothesized to influence the likelihood that task and process conflict would trigger relationship conflict. Trust and value dissimilarity were found to significantly moderate the association between task conflict and further relationship conflict. The findings advance theory with regard to mechanisms that reduce negative conflict and enhance our understanding of intragroup conflict in intercollegiate athletics. Implications for research and practice are presented.

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Jennifer A. Stone

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Karen Friedman-Kester