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Fang Zhang and Nandini Deshpande

Fifteen young (20–30 years old) and 15 older (>65 years old) healthy participants were recruited to investigate age-related differences in head and trunk control under suboptimal vestibular conditions (galvanic vestibular stimulation, or GVS) and vision conditions during normal and narrow-based walking. Head-roll velocity decreased in the blurred-vision condition and marginally increased with GVS in older but not in young participants. Head pitch increased, whereas head-roll velocity decreased in narrow-base walking. Trunk pitch, trunk-pitch velocity, and gait speed increased with GVS, whereas trunk-pitch velocity and gait speed decreased in narrow-base walking. Marginally increased head-roll velocity in the older participants possibly suggests decreased integrative ability of the central nervous system in elderly people. The changes in head control during narrow-base walking may be an attempt to simplify the interpretation of the vestibular signal and increase otolith sensitivity. The complexity of controlling the trunk in the mediolateral direction was suggested by different strategies used for trunk control in different conditions.

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Michelle A. Sandrey and Jonathan G. Mitzel


Core training specifically for track and field athletes is vague, and it is not clear how it affects dynamic balance and core-endurance measures.


To determine the effects of a 6-week core-stabilization-training program for high school track and field athletes on dynamic balance and core endurance.




High school in north central West Virginia.


Thirteen healthy high school student athletes from 1 track and field team volunteered for the study.


Subjects completed pretesting 1 wk before data collection. They completed a 6-wk core-stabilization program designed specifically for track and field athletes. The program consisted of 3 levels with 6 exercises per level and lasted for 30 min each session 3 times per week. Subjects progressed to the next level at 2-wk intervals. After 6 wk, posttesting was conducted

Main Outcome Measures:

The subjects were evaluated using the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) for posteromedial (PM), medial (M), and anteromedial (AM) directions; abdominal-fatigue test (AFT); back-extensor test (BET); and side-bridge test (SBT) for the right and left sides.


Posttest results significantly improved for all 3 directions of the SEBT (PM, M, and AM), AFT, BET, right SBT, and left SBT. Effect size was large for all variables except for PM and AM, where a moderate effect was noted. Minimal-detectable-change scores exceeded the error of the measurements for all dependent variables.


After the 6-wk core-stabilization-training program, measures of the SEBT, AFT, BET, and SBT improved, thus advocating the use of this core-stabilization-training program for track and field athletes.

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Musa L. Audu and Ronald J. Triolo

The contributions of intrinsic (passive) and extrinsic (active) properties of the human trunk, in terms of the simultaneous actions about the hip and spinal joints, to the control of sagittal and coronal seated balance were examined. Able-bodied (ABD) and spinal-cord-injured (SCI) volunteers sat on a moving platform which underwent small amplitude perturbations in the anterior-posterior (AP) and medial-lateral (ML) directions while changes to trunk orientation were measured. A linear parametric model that related platform movement to trunk angle was fit to the experimental data by identifying model parameters in the time domain. The results showed that spinal cord injury leads to a systematic reduction in the extrinsic characteristics, while most of the intrinsic characteristics were rarely affected. In both SCI and ABD individuals, passive characteristics alone were not enough to maintain seated balance. Passive stiffness in the ML direction was almost 3 times that in the AP direction, making more extrinsic mechanisms necessary for balance in the latter direction. Proportional and derivative terms of the extrinsic model made the largest contribution to the overall output from the active system, implying that a simple proportional plus derivative (PD) controller structure will suffice for restoring seated balance after spinal cord injury.

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Geetanjali Gera, Kelsey E. McGlade, Darcy S. Reisman, and John Peter Scholz

In this study, we investigated deficits in coordination of trunk muscle modes involved in the stabilization of the trunk’s trajectory for reaching upward and downward beyond functional arm length. Trunk muscle activity from 10 stroke survivors (8 men, 2 women; 64.1 ± 10.5 years old) and 9 healthy control subjects (7 men, 2 women; 59.3 ± 9.3 years old) was analyzed. Coordination of trunk muscle modes to stabilize the trunk trajectory was investigated using the uncontrolled manifold (UCM) analysis. The UCM analysis decomposes the variability of muscle modes into good and bad variability. The good variability does not affect the control of trunk motion, whereas the bad variability does. In stroke survivors, deficits in the ability to flexibly combine trunk muscle modes was associated with reduced ability to minimize those combinations of trunk muscle modes that led to an error in trunk trajectory (bad variability), and this had a greater effect on reaching upward. This reduced coordination of trunk muscle modes during reaching was correlated with a clinical measure of trunk impairment.

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Kai Yan Lui, Patricia Hewston, and Nandini Deshpande

, although suboptimal (blurring goggles), was available, suggesting that visual inputs could be crucial for trunk control. As the trunk is the largest body segment, it was anticipated that the effects of GVS on trunk roll angle when vision was absent (eyes closed) would also translate into greater peak

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Lukas D. Linde, Jessica Archibald, Eve C. Lampert, and John Z. Srbely

Consequently, greater hip adduction angle and knee abduction angle/moment during single-leg squats have been linked to increased ACL injury risk. Poor trunk control has also been recently associated with increased risk of ACL injury. 4 , 6 A large 3-year prospective study reported that decreased trunk control

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Marie Lund Ohlsson, Jonas Danvind, and L. Joakim Holmberg

); therefore, the KH position is hypothesized to be associated with high joint reactions in both the lumbar spine and the shoulders. For this study, a new sit-ski sledge was designed with the intention of enabling athletes with reduced hip and trunk control to sit in a knee-seated position (knees lower than

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Danielle Nesbitt, Sergio L. Molina, Maria Teresa Cattuzzo, Leah E. Robinson, David Phillips, and David Stodden

This paper examined relationships between qualitative (developmental sequences) and quantitative (time) performance in rising from a supine position in early childhood. One hundred twenty two children ranging in age from 3 to 5 years were videotaped for five trials of rising from a supine position. Children’s performance on the supine-to-stand (STS) task was quite variable in terms of both qualitative movement patterns and time (mean = 2.37 s, SD = .60). Results: Component sequences were moderately to strongly correlated with each other (r = .387 to .791). Upper-extremity (r = –.383) and axial (r = –.416) component levels also were inversely correlated with STS time. Results indicated a strong coordinative link between the development of trunk control (i.e., axial movement) and upper-extremity movement levels (r = .791), and together they demonstrated the strongest impact on the ability to rise quickly. These data provide important information relating to a child’s motor development that may have clinical relevance for diagnosis. It provides also a greater understanding on how to improve performance on this task. Future research should examine qualitative and quantitative aspects of STS performance to understand its predictive utility as a lifespan assessment of motor competence and its potential importance as a measure to predict healthrelated variables and functional capability across the lifespan.

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Jessica R. Fairbairn and Kellie C. Huxel Bliven

injury compared with other body regions among wheelchair athletes in 2 of the studies. 4 , 5 – Seated throwing field athletes had higher shoulder injury incident rate compared with wheelchair racing. 4 – The role that trunk control has on the risk of shoulder injury among wheelchair fencers may be an

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Daniel K. Rogers, Ian McKeown, Gaynor Parfitt, Darren Burgess, and Roger G. Eston

 Upper quadrant Very large Large Moderate Small Very small Stick above head and feet  Triple flexion Very large Large Moderate Small Very small Femur parallel  Trunk control Very large Large Moderate Small Very small Neutral trunk Double lunge  Single-leg stability Very large Large Moderate Small Very