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Craig A. Williams, Eric Doré, James Alban and Emmanuel Van Praagh

This study investigated the differences in short-term power output (STPO) using three different cycle ergometers in 9-year-old children. A total of 31 children participated in three cycle ergometer sprint tests of 20 s duration: a modified friction braked Monark, a modified friction braked Ergomeca cycle ergometer, and a SRM isokinetic ergometer. Common indices of peak and mean power, peak pedal rate, time to peak power, and pedal rate were recorded. Indices of peak power 1 s for the Monark, Ergomeca and SRM ergometer were found to be 299 ± 55, 294 ± 55, 297 ± 53 W and mean power 20 s to be 223 ± 40, 227 ± 43 and 216 ± 34 W, respectively. The time to peak power was found to be 3 ± 2, 6 ± 2, 5 ± 3 s, respectively. The standard error of measurement was lower in mean 20-s power compared to 1-s peak power. Despite instrumentation and protocol differences these results demonstrate reproducibility in 9-year-old children that will allow researchers confidence in comparing STPO data obtained from different ergometers.

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Graham J. Mytton, David T. Archer, Alan St Clair Gibson and Kevin G. Thompson

Purpose:

To assess the reliability and stability of 400-m swimming and 1500-m running competitions to establish the number of samples needed to obtain a stable pacing profile. Coaches, athletes, and researchers can use these methods to ensure that sufficient data are collected before training and race strategies are constructed or research conclusions are drawn.

Method:

Lap times were collected from 5 world and European championship finals between 2005 and 2011, resulting in the capture of data from 40 swimmers and 55 runners. A cumulative mean for each lap was calculated, starting with the most recent data, and the number of races needed for this to stabilize to within 1% was reported. Typical error for each lap was calculated for athletes who had competed in more than 1 final.

Results:

International swimmers demonstrated more reproducible performances than runners in 3 of the 4 laps of the race (P < .01). Variance in runners’ lap times significantly decreased by 1.7–2.7% after lap 1, whereas variance in swimmers’ lap times tended to increase by 0.1–0.5% after lap 1. To establish a stable profile, at least ten 400-m swimmers and forty-four 1500-m runners must be included.

Conclusions:

A stable race profile was observed from the analysis of 5 events for 1500-m running and 3 events for 400-m swimming. Researchers and athletes can be more certain about the pacing information collected from 400-m swimming than 1500-m running races, as the swimming data are less variable, despite both events being of similar duration.

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Amelia J. Carr, Gary J. Slater, Christopher J. Gore, Brian Dawson and Louise M. Burke

Purpose:

The aim of this study was to determine the effect and reliability of acute and chronic sodium bicarbonate ingestion for 2000-m rowing ergometer performance (watts) and blood bicarbonate concentration [HCO3 ].

Methods:

In a crossover study, 7 well-trained rowers performed paired 2000-m rowing ergometer trials under 3 double-blinded conditions: (1) 0.3 grams per kilogram of body mass (g/kg BM) acute bicarbonate; (2) 0.5 g/kg BM daily chronic bicarbonate for 3 d; and (3) calcium carbonate placebo, in semi-counterbalanced order. For 2000-m performance and [HCO3 ], we examined differences in effects between conditions via pairwise comparisons, with differences interpreted in relation to the likelihood of exceeding smallest worthwhile change thresholds for each variable. We also calculated the within-subject variation (percent typical error).

Results:

There were only trivial differences in 2000-m performance between placebo (277 ± 60 W), acute bicarbonate (280 ± 65 W) and chronic bicarbonate (282 ± 65 W); however, [HCO3 ] was substantially greater after acute bicarbonate, than with chronic loading and placebo. Typical error for 2000-m mean power was 2.1% (90% confidence interval 1.4 to 4.0%) for acute bicarbonate, 3.6% (2.5 to 7.0%) for chronic bicarbonate, and 1.6% (1.1 to 3.0%) for placebo. Postsupplementation [HCO3 ] typical error was 7.3% (5.0 to 14.5%) for acute bicarbonate, 2.9% (2.0 to 5.7%) for chronic bicarbonate and 6.0% (1.4 to 11.9%) for placebo.

Conclusion:

Performance in 2000-m rowing ergometer trials may not substantially improve after acute or chronic bicarbonate loading. However, performances will be reliable with both acute and chronic bicarbonate loading protocols.

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Flinn Shiel, Carl Persson, Vini Simas, James Furness, Mike Climstein, Rod Pope and Ben Schram

smallest real difference percentage (SRD%), which constitute the benchmark statistical analysis used to determined whether a real change beyond measurement error has occurred at the defined confidence level ( Beckerman et al., 2001 ; Chen et al., 2009 ). Previously authors have reported typical error

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Thomas W. Jones, Barry C. Shillabeer and Marco Cardinale

analysis. Statistical analyses were conducted using SPSS Statistics (version 20; IBM, Chicago, IL). Pearson correlation ( r ) analysis evaluated relationships between the Tsk and ratings of muscle soreness. Typical error (TE) for the measurement of the Tsk of all ROIs were calculated using pilot data

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Julia L. Bone and Louise M. Burke

between days for the same protocol. Reliability and day-to-day variation for the inpatient and outpatient protocols were determined using a two-way random intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) using absolute agreements and the typical error (TE; Hopkins, 2000 ; Weir, 2005 ). Paired t test and ICC

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Carl Persson, Flinn Shiel, Mike Climstein and James Furness

square error from  ANOVA / mean ) × 100 . (1) SRD % = [ ( 1.96 × SEM × 2 ) / mean] × 100 . (2) A customized spreadsheet from Sportscience website (www.sportsci.org) was utilized to calculate and analyze percentage change in mean and the accompanying typical error (coefficient of variation percentage [CV

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Cédric Leduc, Jason Tee, Mathieu Lacome, Jonathon Weakley, Jeremy Cheradame, Carlos Ramirez and Ben Jones

between “velocity load” and “force load,” designated running load index (RLI), performed during a standardized running test presented small to moderate typical errors. Moreover, they found a session-dependent sensitivity of RLI while changes in “traditional” test results (CMJ and groin squeeze) were

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Emma K. Zadow, Cecilia M. Kitic, Sam S.X. Wu and James W. Fell

reliability, 11 intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) in combination with 95% confidence interval (CI) was used to determine the degree of association between the recorded CALRIG powers at trial 1 and trial 2. Absolute (W) and relative (%) typical errors were calculated by dividing the standard deviation

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Fernando Klitzke Borszcz, Artur Ferreira Tramontin and Vitor Pereira Costa

) the typical error of the estimate (TEE; also called standard error of estimate); (4) the standardized TEE (TEEs), calculated as TEE in raw units divided by the SD of the values of the MLSS predicted by the FTP 20 21 ; and (5) the bias ± 95% of limits of agreement (1.96 × SD of the differences [LoA