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Sleep Duration Correlates With Performance in Ultra-Endurance Triathlon

Jacob N. Kisiolek, Kyle A. Smith, Daniel A. Baur, Brandon D. Willingham, Margaret C. Morrissey, Samantha M. Leyh, Patrick G. Saracino, Cheri D. Mah, and Michael J. Ormsbee

, accumulated sleep loss has been reported to correlate with impaired performance during a 6-day netball tournament, as determined by final competition standings. 9 Over the last 30 years, ultra-endurance events have become increasingly popular, and many of these events have multiday formats in which athletes

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Racing and Training Physiology of an Elite Ultra-Endurance Cyclist: Case Study of 2 Record-Setting Performances

Jeffrey A. Rothschild, Matthieu Delcourt, Ed Maunder, and Daniel J. Plews

Ultra-endurance competitions, defined as endurance events lasting longer than 6 hours, 1 challenge human endurance in ways that are difficult to replicate in a laboratory setting. 2 Popular ultra-endurance cycling events include 24-hour solo cycling 3 and the Race Across America (RAAM). 4 The

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The Effectiveness of a 30-Week Concurrent Strength and Endurance Training Program in Preparation for an Ultra-Endurance Handcycling Challenge: A Case Study

Jonpaul Nevin and Paul Smith

attention on personal challenges, including organized sportive events and/or ultra-endurance challenges. Within the United Kingdom, the highly respected John O’Groats to Land’s End (JOGLE) challenge has a long tradition within the cycling community, representing an alternative to the popular Land’s End to

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The Effects of Medium-Chain Triacylglycerol and Carbohydrate Ingestion on Ultra-Endurance Exercise Performance

Julia H. Goedecke, Virginia R. Clark, Timothy D. Noakes, and Estelle V. Lambert

The aims of the study were to determine if medium-chain triacylglycerol (MCT), ingested in combination with carbohydrate (CHO), would alter substrate metabolism and improve simulated competitive ultra-endurance cycling performance. Eight endurance-trained cyclists took part in this randomized, single-blind crossover study. On two separate occasions, subjects cycled for 270 min at 50% of peak power output, interspersed with four 75 kJ sprints at 60 min intervals, followed immediately by a 200 kJ time-trial. One hour prior to the exercise trials, subjects ingested either 75 g of CHO or 32 g of MCT, and then ingested 200 mL of a 10% CHO (wt/vol) solution or a 4.3% MCT + 10% CHO (wt/vol) solution every 20 min during the CHO and MCT trials, respectively. During the constant-load phases of the 270 min exercise trial, VO2, RER, and heart rate were measured at 30 min intervals and gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms were recorded. There was no difference in VO2 or RER between the MCT and CHO trials (P = 0.40). Hourly sprint (P = 0.03 for trial x time interaction) and time-trial times (14:30 ± 0.58 vs. 12:36 ± 1:6, respectively, P < 0.001) were slower in the MCT than the CHO trial. Half the subjects experienced GI symptoms with MCT ingestion. In conclusion, MCTs ingested prior to exercise and co-ingested with CHO during exercise did not alter substrate metabolism and significantly compromised sprint performance during prolonged ultra-endurance cycling exercise.

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Energy Balance, Macronutrient Intake, and Hydration Status During a 1,230 km Ultra-Endurance Bike Marathon

Bjoern Geesmann, Joachim Mester, and Karsten Koehler

Athletes competing in ultra-endurance events are advised to meet energy requirements, to supply appropriate amounts of carbohydrates (CHO), and to be adequately hydrated before and during exercise. In practice, these recommendations may not be followed because of satiety, gastrointestinal discomfort, and fatigue. The purpose of the study was to assess energy balance, macronutrient intake and hydration status before and during a 1,230-km bike marathon. A group of 14 well-trained participants (VO2max: 63.2 ± 3.3 ml/kg/min) completed the marathon after 42:47 hr. Ad libitum food and fluid intake were monitored throughout the event. Energy expenditure (EE) was derived from power output and urine and blood markers were collected before the start, after 310, 618, and 921 km, after the finish, and 12 hr after the finish. Energy intake (EI; 19,749 ± 4,502 kcal) was lower than EE (25,303 ± 2,436 kcal) in 12 of 14 athletes. EI and CHO intake (average: 57.1 ± 17.7 g/hr) decreased significantly after km 618 (p < .05). Participants ingested on average 392 ± 85 ml/hr of fluid, but fluid intake decreased after km 618 (p < .05). Hydration appeared suboptimal before the start (urine specific gravity: 1.022 ± 0.010 g/ml) but did not change significantly throughout the event. The results show that participants failed to maintain in energy balance and that CHO and fluid intake dropped below recommended values during the second half of the bike marathon. Individual strategies to overcome satiety and fatigue may be necessary to improve eating and drinking behavior during prolonged ultra-endurance exercise.

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Ultra Endurance Athletes At-Risk

Jessica R. Edler, Melissa L. Wassink, Leamor Kahanov, and Lindsey E. Eberman

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Abstracts From the 6th Annual Congress on Medicine & Science in Ultra-Endurance Sports, October 11–13, 2019, Cape Town, South Africa

Introduction The 6th Annual Congress on Medicine & Science in Ultra-Endurance Sports will be held October 11–13, 2019, in Cape Town, South Africa, in conjunction with the South African Sports Medicine Association Conference 2019. Details of this Congress, as well as past and future meetings, can be

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Abstracts From the 5th Annual Congress on Medicine & Science in Ultra-Endurance Sports, May 9–10, 2018, Castelló de la Plana, Spain

Introduction The 5th Annual Congress on Medicine & Science in Ultra-Endurance Sports will be held on May 9–10, 2018, in Castelló de la Plana, Spain. Details of this Congress, as well as past and future meetings, can be found at the Ultra Sports Science Foundation Web site: http

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Case Study: Nutrition and Hydration Status during 4,254 km of Running Over 78 Consecutive Days

Sarah Dempster, Rhiannon Britton, Andrew Murray, and Ricardo J. S. Costa

The aims of this study were to assess the dietary intake and monitor self-reported recovery quality and clinical symptomology of a male ultra-endurance runner who completed a multiday ultra-endurance running challenge covering 4,254 km from North Scotland to the Moroccan Sahara desert over 78 consecutive days. Food and fluid intakes were recorded and analyzed through dietary analysis software. Body mass (BM) was determined before and after running each day, and before sleep. Clinical symptomology and perceived recovery quality were recorded each day. Whole blood hemoglobin and serum ferritin were determined before and after the challenge. Total daily energy (mean ± SD: 23.2 ± 3.2MJ·day−1) and macronutrient intake (182 ± 31g·day−1 protein, 842 ± 115g·day−1 carbohydrate, 159 ± 55 g·day−1 fat) met consensus nutritional guidelines for endurance performance. Total daily water intake through foods and fluids was 4.8 ± 2.0L·day−1. Water and carbohydrate intake rates during running were 239 ± 143ml·h−1 and 56 ± 19g·h−1, respectively. Immediately after running, carbohydrate and protein intakes were 1.3 ± 1.0g·kg BM−1 and 0.4 ± 0.2g·kg BM−1, respectively. Daily micronutrient intakes ranged from 109 to 662% of UK RNIs. Prerunning BM was generally maintained throughout. Overall exercise-induced BM loss averaged 0.8 ± 1.0%; although BM losses of ≥ 2% occurred in the latter stages, a reflection of the warmer climate. Varying degrees of self-reported perceived recovery quality and clinical symptomology occurred throughout the challenge. This case study highlights oscillations in dietary habits along 78 consecutive days of ultra-endurance running, dependent on changes in ambient conditions and course topography. Nevertheless, nutrition and hydration status were maintained throughout the challenge. Despite dietary iron intake above RNI and iron supplementation, this alone did not prevent deficiency symptoms.

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Case Study: Long-Term Low-Carbohydrate, High-Fat Diet Impairs Performance and Subjective Well-Being in a World-Class Vegetarian Long-Distance Triathlete

Iñigo Mujika

intake may induce gastrointestinal (GI) distress during long-distance races ( Jeukendrup et al., 2005 ; Pfeiffer et al., 2012 ). Given these potential limitations, it has been suggested that strategies that enhance fat oxidation could be beneficial for performance in ultra-endurance events ( Volek et