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Maylon T. Hanold

This article examines the ways in which high-performance female ultrarunning bodies are created by and understood through the discourses of the normative running body, the ideal female body and pain. Using a Foucauldian framework, this paper shows how the ultrarunning body becomes a desired body beyond the marathon and how these same desires produce multiple and complex subjectivities for female ultrarunners. In-depth interviews were conducted with 8 high performance female ultrarunners. Findings suggest that ultrarunning is a sporting space which gives rise to more diverse subjectivities than previously found in distance running literature. Simultaneously, this discourse produces disciplined bodies through the mode of desire and “unquestioned” social norms, paralleling the constructs of extreme sports and (re)producing middle-classness.

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Kristin J. Stuempfle, Martin D. Hoffman and Tamara Hew-Butler

Context:

Gastrointestinal (GI) distress is common during ultrarunning.

Purpose:

To determine if race diet is related to GI distress in a 161-km ultramarathon.

Methods:

Fifteen (10 male, 5 female) consenting runners in the Javelina Jundred (6.5 loops on a desert trail) participated. Body mass was measured immediately prerace and after each loop. Runners reported if they had nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, and/or diarrhea after each loop. Subjects were interviewed after each loop to record food, fluid, and electrolyte consumption. Race diets were analyzed using Nutritionist Pro.

Results:

Nine (8 male, 1 female) of 15 runners experienced GI distress including nausea (89%), abdominal cramps (44%), diarrhea (44%), and vomiting (22%). Fluid consumption rate was higher (p = .001) in runners without GI distress (10.9 ± 3.2 ml · kg−1 · hr−1) than in those with GI distress (5.9 ± 1.6 ml · kg−1 · hr−1). Runners without GI distress consumed a higher percentage fat (p = .03) than runners with GI distress (16.5 ± 2.6 vs. 11.1 ± 5.0). In addition, fat intake rate was higher (p = .01) in runners without GI distress (0.06 ± 0.03 g · kg−1 · hr−1) than in runners with GI distress (0.03 ± 0.01 g · kg−1 · hr−1). Lower fluid and fat intake rates were evident in those developing GI distress before the onset of symptoms.

Conclusions:

A race diet with higher percentage fat and higher intake rates of fat and fluid may protect ultramarathoners from GI distress. However, these associations do not indicate cause and effect, and factors other than race diet may have contributed to GI distress.

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Beat Knechtle

Ultramarathon running is increasingly popular. An ultramarathon is defined as a running event involving distances longer than the length of a traditional marathon of 42.195 km. In ultramarathon races, ~80% of the finishers are men. Ultramarathoners are typically ~45 y old and achieve their fastest running times between 30 and 49 y for men, and between 30 and 54 y for women. Most probably, ultrarunners start with a marathon before competing in an ultramarathon. In ultramarathoners, the number of previously completed marathons is significantly higher than the number of completed marathons in marathoners. However, recreational marathoners have a faster personal-best marathon time than ultramarathoners. Successful ultramarathoners have 7.6 ± 6.3 y of experience in ultrarunning. Ultramarathoners complete more running kilometers in training than marathoners do, but they run more slowly during training than marathoners. To summarize, ultramarathoners are master runners, have a broad experience in running, and prepare differently for an ultramarathon than marathoners do. However, it is not known what motivates male ultramarathoners and where ultramarathoners mainly originate. Future studies need to investigate the motivation of male ultramarathoners, where the best ultramarathoners originate, and whether they prepare by competing in marathons before entering ultramarathons.

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Alan J. McCubbin, Gregory R. Cox and Elizabeth M. Broad

This case study describes the nutrition plans, intakes and experiences of five ultra-marathon runners who completed the Marathon des Sables in 2011 and 2013; age 37 (28–43) y, height 184 (180–190) cm, body mass 77.5 (71–85.5) kg, marathon personal best 3:08 (2:40–3:32). MdS is a 7-day, six-stage ultra-running stage race held in the Sahara Desert (total distance of timed stages 1–5 was 233.2 km in 2011, 223.4 km in 2013). Competitors are required to carry all equipment and food (except water) for the race duration, a minimum of 8,360 kJ/day and total pack weight of 6.5–15 kg. Total food mass carried was 4.2 (3.8–4.7) kg or 0.7 (0.5–1.1) kg/day. Planned energy (13,550 (10,323–18,142) kJ/day), protein (1.3 (0.8–1.8) g/kg/day), and carbohydrate (6.2 (4.3–9.2) g/kg/day) intakes on the fully self-sufficient days were slightly below guideline recommendations, due to the need to balance nutritional needs with food mass to be carried. Energy density was 1,636 (1,475–1,814) kJ/100g. 98.5% of the planned food was consumed. Fluid consumption was ad libitum with no symptoms or medical treatment required for dehydration or hyponatremia. During-stage carbohydrate intake was 42 (20–64) g/hour. Key issues encountered by runners included difficulty consuming foods due to dry mouth, and unpalatability of sweet foods (energy gels, sports drinks) when heated in the sun. Final classification of the runners ranged from 11th to 175th of 970 finishers in 2013, and 132nd of 805 in 2011. The described pattern of intake and macronutrient quantities were positively appraised by the five runners.

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Louise M. Burke, Linda M. Castell, Douglas J. Casa, Graeme L. Close, Ricardo J. S. Costa, Ben Desbrow, Shona L. Halson, Dana M. Lis, Anna K. Melin, Peter Peeling, Philo U. Saunders, Gary J. Slater, Jennifer Sygo, Oliver C. Witard, Stéphane Bermon and Trent Stellingwerff

Federations (IAAF), recognizes a number of distinct disciplines: sprints, middle/long distance, hurdles, and relays on the track; throws and jumps on the field; the combined events of heptathlon and decathlon; road running; race walks; cross-country; and mountain running and ultrarunning ( www.iaaf.org ). The

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Tricia D. McGuire-Adams and Audrey R. Giles

: Indigenous recipes and guide to diet and fitness . Lincoln, NE : University of Nebraska Press . Milroy , A. ( 2013 , August 15 ). In the beginning: Native Americans . Ultrarunning Magazine . Retrieved from https://www.ultrarunning.com/features/destinations/in-the-beginning-native-americans/ Monture

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Nicola Relph and Katie Small

-endurance event; athletic trainers should introduce dynamic balance exercises within ultra-running events. Knee Neuromuscular Control There were no significant changes to knee neuromuscular control on either leg. This is an unexpected finding, however, Munro et al. 23 stated the SDD as 7.54°–7.90° for the task

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Roberto Baldassarre, Marco Bonifazi, Paola Zamparo and Maria Francesca Piacentini

challenge of overcoming human limits. 4 , 5 While several studies have focused on ultrarunning, ultratriathlon, or ultracycling, data regarding performance in ultraswimming are scarce. 4 , 6 Most OWS research has focused on body temperature responses in cold water, 7 – 16 while very few studies have

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Noora J. Ronkainen, Amanda Shuman and Lin Xu

. Sport, Education and Society, 21 , 11 – 27 . doi:10.1080/13573322.2015.1066770 10.1080/13573322.2015.1066770 Hanold , M.T. ( 2010 ). Beyond the marathon: (De) Construction of female ultrarunning bodies . Sociology of Sport Journal, 27 , 160 – 177 . doi:10.1123/ssj.27.2.160 10.1123/ssj.27