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Print to Podium: Exploring Media Coverage of 2016 Olympic Athletes’ Perceptions About the Zika Virus

Amanda Kastrinos, Rachel Damiani, and Debbie Treise

, including high uncertainty and risk of a fatal outcome, a review of the coverage revealed that 86.2% of articles published in the United Kingdom had a neutral tone. Articles relied on scientific information rather than personal stories and sensationalized information ( Hilton & Hunt, 2011 ). Parasocial

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Embrace Uncertainty

Jos J. de Koning and Dionne A. Noordhof

know that it is not that simple. Is the winner really the best athlete? Did the training intervention give a performance benefit, and which performance-determining variable was improved? There is a lot of uncertainty in our day-to-day practice, while the world around us is asking for unambiguous

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Reliability and Validity of Electrothermometers and Associated Thermocouples

Lisa S. Jutte, Kenneth L. Knight, and Blaine C. Long

Objective:

Examine thermocouple model uncertainty (reliability + validity).

Design:

First, a 3 × 3 repeated measures design with independent variables electrothermometers and thermocouple model. Second, a 1 × 3 repeated measures design with independent variable subprobe.

Intervention:

Three electrothermometers, 3 thermocouple models, a multi-sensor probe and a mercury thermometer measured a stable water bath.

Main Outcome Measures:

Temperature and absolute temperature differences between thermocouples and a mercury thermometer.

Results:

Thermocouple uncertainty was greater than manufactures’ claims. For all thermocouple models, validity and reliability were better in the Iso-Themex than the Datalogger, but there were no practical differences between models within an electrothermometers. Validity of multi-sensor probes and thermocouples within a probe were not different but were greater than manufacturers’ claims. Reliability of multiprobes and thermocouples within a probe were within manufacturers claims.

Conclusion:

Thermocouple models vary in reliability and validity. Scientists should test and report the uncertainty of their equipment rather than depending on manufactures’ claims.

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Using Monte Carlo Simulation to Propagate Processing Parameter Uncertainty to the Statistical Analyses of Biomechanical Trajectories

Todd C. Pataky

uncertainty. One approach is numerical optimization wherein optimal processing parameter values are sought to minimize the error between measurement and mechanical expectation (e.g.,  van den Bogert & Koning, 1996 ). The main limitation of optimization approaches is that they settle on single parameter values

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Influence of Center of Pressure Estimation Errors on 3D Inverse Dynamics Solutions During Gait at Different Velocities

Franklin Camargo-Junior, Marko Ackermann, Jefferson F. Loss, and Isabel C.N. Sacco

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of errors in the location of the center of pressure (5 and 10 mm) on lower limb joint moment uncertainties at different gait velocities (1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 m/s). Our hypotheses were that the absolute joint moment uncertainties would be gradually reduced from distal to proximal joints and from higher to lower velocities. Joint moments of five healthy young adults were calculated by inverse dynamics using the bottom-up approach, depending on which estimate the uncertainty propagated. Results indicated that there is a linear relationship between errors in center of pressure and joint moment uncertainties. The absolute moment peak uncertainties expressed on the anatomic reference frames decreased from distal to proximal joints, confirming our first hypothesis, except for the abduction moments. There was an increase in moment uncertainty (up to 0.04 N m/kg for the 10 mm error in the center of pressure) from the lower to higher gait velocity, confirming our second hypothesis, although, once again, not for hip or knee abduction. Finally, depending on the plane of movement and the joint, relative uncertainties experienced variation (between 5 and 31%), and the knee joint moments were the most affected.

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Influence of Side Uncertainty on Knee Kinematics of Female Handball Athletes During Sidestep Cutting Maneuvers

Bruno Luiz Souza Bedo, Guilherme Manna Cesar, Renato Moraes, Fábio Pamplona Mariano, Luiz Henrique Palucci Vieira, Vitor Luiz Andrade, and Paulo Roberto Pereira Santiago

, which may overload cognitive functioning. 8 The condition of uncertainty using visual stimulus can reduce the amount of time available for planning the sidestep cutting, which could consequently impact joint kinematics, 22 even with a reduction in approach velocity. 14 The inability to preplan the

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Employee Relations in Times of Uncertainty

Emily Dane-Staples and Stephen Gonzalez

Sport managers are required to handle times of uncertainty by managing their employees effectively and working to ensure that the objectives of the organization can be maintained. This case follows the fictional Harrison Hornets AA baseball team through the COVID-19 pandemic and how their chief executive officer/chief operating officer, Rachel Chambers, manages the front office employees. The employer/employee interactions in this case demonstrate the challenges faced by managers attempting to balance things they can and cannot control. In working through the case, students become aware of consequences stemming from specific choices, the struggles managers face when dealing with varying personalities, and issues of inequality that arise when working with diverse stakeholders. The broadness of the narrative provides instructor latitude on implementation for a variety of courses and modes of student participation. The teaching notes provide multiple options to expand beyond the case itself, including research and information literacy tasks that can develop student skills.

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Uncertainty of Outcome and Radio Policy in Professional Road Cycling

Daniel J. Larson and Joel Maxcy

The world governing body for cycling proscribed the use of two-way radio communication in road cycling races, with the ban set to become fully effective in 2012. The ban was instituted because radio use was perceived to have altered the cycling competitions by making outcomes more predictable and of less interest to sport’s consumers. This empirical analysis of the policy rationale considers the uncertainty of outcome hypothesis (UOH) as it applies to professional cycling races and creates a novel measure, the likelihood of breakaway success (LBS). The LBS is analyzed in 1436 bicycle races between 1985–2010 to examine potential changes in outcomes associated with the use of two-way radio technology by competitors and team directors. The data suggests that radio technology has had a significant association with event outcome types. The relevance of the findings to intraorganizational communication, management, and hierarchies of sports teams are also discussed.

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The Inclusion of Preplanned and Random and Unanticipated/Unexpected Events During Strength Training Improves the Ability to Repeat High-Intensity Efforts Under Uncertainty

Oliver Gonzalo-Skok, Julio Tous-Fajardo, Sergio Maroto-Izquierdo, Javier Raya-González, and Javier Sánchez-Sánchez

uncertainty RSA (RSA-RANDOM) were assessed. Methodology Training Intervention Participants in both training groups (UTG and PTG) performed 1 weekly additional training session, 13 always in the afternoon (6–8 PM) for 10 weeks, involving a total of 20/30 minutes per session. CON continued with their regular

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The Effect of Load Uncertainty and Foreperiod Regularity on Anticipatory and Compensatory Neuromotor Control in Catching

William P. Berg and Michael R. Hughes

Muscle activation was measured using EMG in 28 males (n = 28) while participants caught visually identical balls of known and unknown weights (50, 1.32, 2.18, and 2.99 kg) under variable (1–10s) and constant (3s) foreperiods. EMG integrals were computed for three time intervals before the catch (anticipatory), and one after (compensatory). Load uncertainty caused the CNS to use an anticipatory strategy characterized by preparation to catch balls of an unknown weight by utilizing about 92% of the muscle activation used to catch the heaviest possible ball under the known weight condition. The CNS appeared to scale anticipatory muscle activation to afford an opportunity to catch a ball of an unknown weight between .50 and 2.99 kg. The constant 3s foreperiod, which permitted temporal anticipation, did not influence the anticipatory neuromotor strategy adopted by the CNS to cope with load uncertainty. Load uncertainty also altered compensatory neuromotor control in catching.