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Comparing Different Methods to Create a Linear Model for Uncontrolled Manifold Analysis

Inge Tuitert, Tim A. Valk, Egbert Otten, Laura Golenia, and Raoul M. Bongers

The uncontrolled manifold (UCM) method is a well-established approach to assessing the coordination of multiple degrees of freedom (DoF) in synergies that stabilize performance in human actions. The method has been applied to a variety of actions, such as sit-to-stance, finger-force production, and

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A Dynamical Approach to the Uncontrolled Manifold: Predicting Performance Error During Steady-State Isometric Force Production

Francis M. Grover, Valéria Andrade, Nicole S. Carver, Scott Bonnette, Michael A. Riley, and Paula L. Silva

Manifold Method The uncontrolled manifold (UCM) method was developed to partition motor variability into compensatory and uncompensatory variability metrics in order to investigate and quantify the presence of a synergy ( Scholz & Schöner, 1999 ). The UCM analysis generates a synergy index by quantifying

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Differentiating Successful and Unsuccessful Single-Leg Drop Landing Performance Using Uncontrolled Manifold Analysis

Christopher A. DiCesare, Scott Bonnette, Gregory D. Myer, and Adam W. Kiefer

), which may subsequently inform the quantification of such behavior during tasks often used in biomechanical-based injury risk assessments. One approach that quantifies synergistic behavior among motor system DOF is the uncontrolled manifold (UCM) analysis ( Scholz & Schoner, 1999 ). The UCM analysis is

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Performance-Stabilizing Synergies in a Complex Motor Skill: Analysis Based on the Uncontrolled Manifold Hypothesis

Fariba Hasanbarani and Mark L. Latash

produced by abundant sets of elements has been developed within the framework of the uncontrolled manifold (UCM) hypothesis ( Scholz & Schöner, 1999 ; reviewed in Latash, Scholz, & Schöner, 2007 ). According to this concept, the highest, task-specific level of a hypothetical control hierarchy specifies

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Uncontrolled Manifold Analysis of the Effects of Different Fatigue Locations on Kinematic Coordination During a Repetitive Upper-Limb Task

Matthew Slopecki, Fariba Hasanbarani, Chen Yang, Christopher A. Bailey, and Julie N. Côté

 al., 2011 ), no changes in intersegmental variability were observed for the fatigued repetitive pointing task (RPT) ( Yang et al., 2019 ). However, they did not analyze how these adaptations impacted task performance, a topic of investigation that can be made using the uncontrolled manifold (UCM) hypothesis

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Optimality, Stability, and Agility of Human Movement: New Optimality Criterion and Trade-Offs

Mark L. Latash

begins with a brief review of the theory of control with RCs and the principle of abundance, implemented using the framework of the uncontrolled manifold (UCM) hypothesis ( Scholz & Schöner, 1999 ; Schöner, 1995 ). Furthermore, we have introduced explicit definitions for three movement characteristics

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The Influence of Recent Actions and Anticipated Actions on the Stability of Finger Forces During a Tracking Task

Mitchell Tillman and Satyajit Ambike

documented over the last decade. Synergies are systems that display task-specific covariation in redundant sets of inputs to ensure the stability of the output variables defining task performance ( Latash, Scholz, & Schoner, 2002 ). Synergies can be quantified using the uncontrolled manifold (UCM) method

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Motor Control: Creating a Natural Science of Biological Movement

Mark L. Latash

introduction of the uncontrolled manifold (UCM) hypothesis ( Scholz & Schöner, 1999 ; Schöner, 1995 ) and its associated computational apparatus for analysis of stability of potentially important performance variables in multidimensional spaces of elemental variables ( Latash et al., 2007 ). This breakthrough

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Intramuscle Synergies: Their Place in the Neural Control Hierarchy

Mark L. Latash, Shirin Madarshahian, and Joseph M. Ricotta

variables. The other main feature of synergies—dynamical stability of salient performance variables—had been largely overlooked until the end of the XXth century when Gregor Schöner and John Scholz introduced the uncontrolled manifold (UCM) hypothesis ( Scholz & Schöner, 1999 ; Schöner, 1995 ). According

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Synergies in Intra- and Interpersonal Interlimb Rhythmic Coordination

David P. Black, Michael A. Riley, and Christopher K. McCord

The authors conducted two experiments that served as a test bed for applying the recently developed uncontrolled manifold (UCM) approach to rhythmic motor coordination, which has been extensively investigated from a coordination dynamics perspective. The results of two experiments, one investigating withinperson and one investigating between-persons rhythmic movement coordination, identified synergistic behaviors in both of those types of coordination. Stronger synergies were identified for in-phase than antiphase coordination, at the endpoints of the movement cycles compared with the midpoints, for movement frequencies closer to the intrinsic frequency of the coordinated limbs, and for within-person coordination. Frequency detuning did not weaken the strength of interlimb rhythmic coordination synergies. The results suggest the synergistic behavior captured by the UCM analysis may be identifiable with the strength of coupling between the coordinated limbs. The UCM analysis appears to distinguish coordination parameters that affect coupling strength from parameters that weaken coordination attractors.