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Satya S. Jonnalagadda, Dan Benardot, and Marian N. Dill

This study examines the degree of under-reporting of energy intake by elite, female gymnasts, and the impact this predicted under-reporting has on associated macro and micro nutrient intake. Twenty-eight female U.S. national team artistic gymnasts participated in the study. Dietary intake was assessed using 3-day food records, and the degree of under-reporting was predicted from the ratio of reported energy intake (EI) to predicted basal metabolic rate (BMRestd), using the standards described by Goldberg et al. (10). Sixty-one percent of the subjects had an EI/BMRestd ratio of < 1.44, and were classified as under-reporters. The under-reporters had higher BMIs and percent body fat, and lower reported total energy intakes than the adequate energy reporters. Additionally, under-reporting of energy intake had a significant impact on reported micro nutrient intake. The under-reporting of energy intake seen in these subjects has an impact on the reported intake of macro and micro nutrients that can influence the interpretation of the nutritional status of these athletes and the strategy for nutrition intervention. Therefore, when assessing dietary intakes of elite gymnasts, some means of determining the accuracy of the reported energy and nutrient intake should be employed to more accurately identify the true nutritional problems experienced by these elite athletes.

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P. Farajian, S.A. Kavouras, M. Yannakoulia, and L.S. Sidossis

To investigate whether aquatic athletes follow optimal dietary intake, 58 athletes, all members of the Greek national swimming and water polo teams, were tested. Dietary intake was assessed at the nutrient, food, and food group level using the 24-h recall method and a food frequency questionnaire. Mean energy intake for males and females was 14.3 and 8.5 MJ, respectively. Mean carbohydrate consumption for male and female athletes was 4.5 g/kg and 3.8 g/kg of body weight, respectively. Fat intake was 153 g for males and 79 g for females. A significant number of the athletes (71% of the males, 93% of the females) did not meet the Dietary Reference Intakes for at least one of the antioxidant vitamins. The data suggest that athletes of both genders consumed too much fat and too little carbohydrate. Insufficient fruit and vegetable intake was related to low intake of antioxidants.

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Emily Kroshus, Sara P.D. Chrisman, Jeffrey J. Milroy, and Christine M. Baugh

hypothesis that experiences during the concussion recovery process (i.e., history of concussion) would impact whether an athlete continued to play while symptomatic with potential concussive symptoms. Additionally, this study also explored reasons for concussion under-reporting in athletes with and without a

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Samuel W. Logan, Christina M. Hospodar, Kathleen R. Bogart, Michele A. Catena, Heather A. Feldner, Jenna Fitzgerald, Sarah Schaffer, Bethany Sloane, Benjamin Phelps, Joshua Phelps, and William D. Smart

usage data between parent-reported activity logs and FIT system (Difference Between Activity Log and FIT). This is a calculation of the time recorded by the log minus the time recorded by the FIT system. Positive values indicate over-reporting by parents; negative values indicate under-reporting by

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Jairus J. Quesnele, Michelle A. Laframboise, Jessica J. Wong, Peter Kim, and Greg D. Wells


To critically review the methodological quality and synthesize information from systematic reviews and high quality studies on the effects of beta alanine (BA) on exercise and athletic performance.


A search strategy was developed in accordance with the standards for the reporting of scientific literature via systematic reviews. Five databases were thoroughly searched from inception to November 2012. Inclusion criteria were English language, human studies, used BA to increase exercise or athletic performance, systematic reviews or randomized controlled trials and were published in a peer-reviewed journal. Included studies were systematically graded for their methodological quality by rotating pairs of reviewers and the results were qualitatively synthesized.


One systematic review and 19 randomized trials were included in this review. There is one systematic review with several methodological weaknesses that limit the confidence in its results. There are moderate to high quality studies that appear to support that BA may increase power output and working capacity, decrease the feeling of fatigue and exhaustion, and have of positive effect on body composition and carnosine content. The reporting of side effects from BA supplementation in the athletic population was generally under-reported.


There appears to be some evidence from this review that supplementation with BA may increase athletic performance. However, there is insufficient evidence examining the safety of BA supplementation and its side effects. It is therefore recommended to err on the side of caution in using BA as an ergogenic aid until there is sufficient evidence confirming its safety.

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Hans Braun, Judith von Andrian-Werburg, Wilhelm Schänzer, and Mario Thevis

underestimation of the actual EI by 20%–50% using estimated food records, which is the most applied assessment tool in research. Reasons for under-reporting can be a misjudgment of portion sizes or an incomplete listing of snacks or drinks with caloric value, which is considered intentional or unintentional

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Ryan Thomson, Danielle Carabello, Jamie Mansell, and Anne Russ

their playing career. 3 In a sample of retired NFL players, the average number of concussions experienced during their lifetime was four. 4 Since the NFL has been found to under-report the number of concussions, 5 the number sustained may be greater. The symptoms of concussion are diverse and include

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Todd Miller, Stephanie Mull, Alan Albert Aragon, James Krieger, and Brad Jon Schoenfeld

, respectively). Despite rigorous efforts to ensure compliance to the diet (i.e., weekly review of food logs, ongoing email support for dietary tracking, and monthly meetings with the dietician to answer any diet-related questions), there nevertheless is the possibility of under-reporting of caloric intake

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Jeffrey J. Milroy, Stephen Hebard, Emily Kroshus, and David L. Wyrick

factors, including gender, sport, level of competition, as well as between-study differences in the definition used for under-reporting ( Baugh, Kroshus, Daneshvar, & Stern, 2014 ; Kerr et al., 2014 ; Kroshus, Daneshvar, Garnett, Nowinski, & Cantu, 2013 ; Llewellyn, Burdette, Joyner, & Buckley, 2014

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Christina Yannetsos, Mario C. Pacheco, and Danny G. Thomas

-reported symptoms following sports-related concussion . J Sci Med Sports . 2015 ; 18 : 507 – 511 . doi:10.1016/j.jsams.2014.07.008 10.1016/j.jsams.2014.07.008 11. Kroshus E , Garnett B , Hawrilenko M , Baugh CM , Calzo JP . Concussion under-reporting and pressure from coaches, teammates, fans, and