groups, and members of mainstream and social media have examined reasons for the underrepresentation of female coaches. For example, Nicole LaVoi and her colleagues have explored the problematic nature of women’s continued absence as well as outlined strategies for reversing this employment trend
Beth G. Clarkson, Elwyn Cox and Richard C. Thelwell
believe coaching is a realizable career ( LaVoi, 2016 ; Norman, 2014 ). Given the proliferation of women’s participation, why are there so few women head coaches in football? A rich body of research has documented this underrepresentation of women in sports coaching (see for a review, Burton, 2015
Louisa A. Webb and Doune Macdonald
In a research project investigating the underrepresentation of women in leadership in physical education within the context of workplace cultures and teachers’ lives and careers, subtle effects of power were found to be influential. This article outlines the analytical framework that was used for the discourse analysis of interviews from this research based on the work of Gore (1998), Wright (2000), and Foucault. Seventeen teachers (7 male and 10 female) were interviewed and the data analyzed through discourse analysis using eight techniques of power described by Gore that are pertinent to educational and physical education settings. These techniques explained the colonization of space by dominant masculinities, the male gaze on female bodies, gendered expectations of behavior and appearance, dominant discourses of male leadership, and exclusion from male-dominated networks that all contributed toward the underrepresentation of women in leadership in physical education.
George B. Cunningham, Jennifer E. Bruening and Thomas Straub
The purpose of this study was to examine factors that contribute to the under representation of African Americans in head coaching positions. In Study 1, qualitative data were collected from assistant football (n = 41) and men’s basketball (n = 16) coaches to examine why coaches sought head coaching positions, barriers to obtaining such positions, and reasons for leaving the coaching profession. In Study 2, assistant football (n = 259) and men’s basketball coaches (n = 114) completed a questionnaire developed from Study 1. Results indicate that although there were no differences in desire to become a head coach, African Americans, relative to Whites, perceived race and opportunity as limiting their ability to obtain a head coaching position and had greater occupational turnover intentions. Context moderated the latter results, as the effects were stronger for African American football coaches than they were for African American basketball coaches. Results have practical implications for the advancement of African American football coaches into head coaching roles.
Naoki Kikuchi, Dai Ueda, Seok-ki Min, Koichi Nakazato and Shoji Igawa
To examine the relationship between ACTN3 polymorphisms and level of athletic performance in Japanese wrestlers.
The control group consisted of 243 healthy Japanese individuals. The authors divided 135 wrestlers into 3 groups based on their results in national or international competitions. They classified as elite 24 wrestlers who had placed in the top 8 in a world championship or participated in Olympic games, 28 wrestlers who had participated in world championships or become champions in Japan’s national championships were classified as subelite, and 83 wrestlers were classified as national (N-W, ie, national-level wrestler). In addition, the authors combined the elite and subelite to form the classification international-level wrestlers (I-W).
The frequency of the null X allele and the XX genotype were significantly lower in the I-W group than in the control group. However, there was no significant difference in ACTN3 genotype or allele frequency between the N-W and control groups. The frequency of the ACTN3 XX genotype in the elite groups was lower than that of all groups, and a linear tendency was observed between ACTN3 XX genotype and athletic status.
In conclusion, the data indicated that ACTN3 polymorphisms were related to athletic performance in Japanese wrestlers.
Jane Marie Stangl and Mary Jo Kane
The dramatic decline of women coaches since Title IX has been well documented. This investigation examined how homologous reproduction has influenced the proportion of female to male head coaches within the historical context of Title IX. Homologous reproduction is a process whereby dominants reproduce themselves based on social and/or physical characteristics. Therefore the employment relationship between sex of athletic director and sex of head coach was considered. The sample included 937 public high schools for three Title IX time periods. Analysis of variance procedures indicated significant main effects for sex of athletic director and Title IX timeframe: Significantly more women were hired under female versus male athletic directors. However, there was also a significantly smaller proportion of female coaches in 1981-82 and 1988-89 compared to 1974-75. This latter pattern occurred under both female and male athletic directors. Findings are discussed in terms of analyzing employment practices toward females as manifestations of hegemony.
Erin Morris, Ryan Vooris and Tara Q. Mahoney
). Often, women are discouraged from pursuing business-related majors while in college ( Levsen, Goetell, Chong, & Farris, 2001 ). The underrepresentation of women also occurs in the sports industry. Yiamouyiannis and Osborne ( 2012 ) found that women were lacking in leadership positions at all levels of
Matthew Katz, Nefertiti A. Walker and Lauren C. Hindman
not followed suit. Although women occupied roughly 90% of leadership positions in women’s athletics over 40 years ago, now women occupy less than 50% of those same positions ( Acosta & Carpenter, 2014 ). In response to this underrepresentation of women in intercollegiate athletic departments, the NCAA
Justine B. Allen and Colleen Reid
There has been much research and discussion on the underrepresentation of women in coaching and particularly in performance environments such as collegiate, national, and international sport. Research documenting the numbers of women and men coaching has demonstrated that this underrepresentation
The under-representation of women in sport management has increasingly been recognized by government and nongovernment organizations, and there has been some attempt to redress the imbalance. Research has indicated, however, that the gendering of sport organizations is not simply a numbers’ game. The purpose of this study was to analyze the exercise of exclusionary power as an aspect of gender relations within a six member volunteer Board of Directors of an Australian local, grass-roots sport organization. Data were gathered using semistructured interviews, participant observation and documentary evidence over a 15-month period. This study identified that, although numerical underrepresentation of men or women on this Board was not an issue for either sex, exclusionary power was exercised in a number of overlapping ways which ultimately limited the participation, input, and influence of its female members.