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Ahlem Arfaoui, Catalin Viorel Popa, Redha Taïar, Guillaume Polidori and Stéphane Fohanno

The objective of this article is to perform a numerical modeling on the flow dynamics around a competitive female swimmer during the underwater swimming phase for a velocity of 2.2 m/s corresponding to national swimming levels. Flow around the swimmer is assumed turbulent and simulated with a computational fluid dynamics method based on a volume control approach. The 3D numerical simulations have been carried out with the code ANSYS FLUENT and are presented using the standard k-ω turbulence model for a Reynolds number of 6.4 × 106. To validate the streamline patterns produced by the simulation, experiments were performed in the swimming pools of the National Institute of Sports and Physical Education in Paris (INSEP) by using the tufts method.

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Sam Lowings, Oliver Michael Shannon, Kevin Deighton, Jamie Matu and Matthew John Barlow

Nitrate supplementation appears to be most ergogenic when oxygen availability is restricted and subsequently may be particularly beneficial for swimming performance due to the breath-hold element of this sport. This represents the first investigation of nitrate supplementation and swimming time-trial (TT) performance. In a randomized double-blind repeated-measures crossover study, ten (5 male, 5 female) trained swimmers ingested 140ml nitrate-rich (~12.5mmol nitrate) or nitrate-depleted (~0.01mmol nitrate) beetroot juice. Three hours later, subjects completed a maximal effort swim TT comprising 168m (8 × 21m lengths) backstroke. Preexercise fractional exhaled nitric oxide concentration was significantly elevated with nitrate compared with placebo, Mean (SD): 17 (9) vs. 7 (3)p.p.b., p = .008. Nitrate supplementation had a likely trivial effect on overall swim TT performance (mean difference 1.22s; 90% CI -0.18–2.6s; 0.93%; p = .144; d = 0.13; unlikely beneficial (22.6%), likely trivial (77.2%), most unlikely negative (0.2%)). The effects of nitrate supplementation during the first half of the TT were trivial (mean difference 0.29s; 90% CI -0.94–1.5s; 0.46%; p = .678; d = 0.05), but there was a possible beneficial effect of nitrate supplementation during the second half of the TT (mean difference 0.93s; 90% CI 0.13–1.70s; 1.36%; p = .062; d = 0.24; possibly beneficial (63.5%), possibly trivial (36.3%), most unlikely negative (0.2%)). The duration and speed of underwater swimming within the performance did not differ between nitrate and placebo (both p > .30). Nitrate supplementation increased nitric oxide bioavailability but did not benefit short-distance swimming performance or the underwater phases of the TT. Further investigation into the effects of nitrate supplementation during the second half of performance tests may be warranted.

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Anne Z. Beethe, Elizabeth F. Nagle, Mita Lovalekar, Takashi Nagai, Bradley C. Nindl and Christopher Connaboy

to a decrease in velocity, frequency, and distance traveled per kick. 20 Ankle plantarflexion restriction has not been studied in terms of sCS flutter kick performance but can be further understood with kinematics of optimal undulatory underwater swimming, owing to the similarity in the temporal and

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Kristin L. Jonvik, Jan-Willem van Dijk, Joan M.G. Senden, Luc J.C. van Loon and Lex B. Verdijk

saturation following beetroot juice supplementation for submaximal 75-m underwater swimming. They suggested that total distance would likely be increased during a maximal attempt, due to increased remaining oxygen stores. This is in line with our observation of increased distance covered during the dynamic