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Ellen Yard and Dawn Comstock

Background:

There are over 7 million US high school athletes and one-third are overweight or obese. Our objective was to examine injury patterns by body mass index (BMI) in high school athletes.

Methods:

Certified athletic trainers (ATCs) at 100 nationally representative US high schools submitted exposure and injury information during the 2005 to 08 school years via High School RIO (Reporting Information Online). We retrospectively categorized injured athletes as underweight (≤15th percentile), normal weight (15th−85th percentile), overweight (85th−95th percentile), or obese (≥95th percentile).

Results:

ATCs reported 13,881 injuries during 5,627,921 athlete-exposures (2.47 injuries per 1000 athlete-exposures). Nearly two-thirds (61.4%) of injured high school athletes were normal weight. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was highest among injured football athletes (54.4%). Compared with normal weight athletes, obese athletes sustained a larger proportion of knee injuries (Injury Proportion Ratio [IPR] = 1.27, 95% CI: 1.14 to 1.42) and their injuries were more likely to have resulted from contact with another person (IPR = 1.31, 95% CI: 1.26 to 1.37). Compared with normal weight athletes, underweight athletes sustained a larger proportion of fractures (IPR = 1.45, 95% CI: 1.10 to 1.92) and a larger proportion of injuries resulting from illegal activity (IPR = 1.59, 95% CI: 1.03 to 2.46).

Conclusions:

Injury patterns differ by BMI. BMI-targeted preventive interventions should be developed to help decrease sports injury rates.

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Roland van den Tillaar and Gertjan Ettema

The aim of this study was to compare the kinematics in throwing with a regular weighted handball with 20% lighter and heavier balls in female experienced handball players. In total, eight joint movements during the throw were analyzed. The analysis consisted of maximal angles, angles at ball release, and maximal angular velocities of the joint movements and their timings during the throw. Results on 24 experienced female team handball players (mean age 18.2 ± 2.1 years) showed that the difference in ball weight affected the maximal ball velocity. The difference in ball release velocity was probably a result of the significant differences in kinematics of the major contributors to overarm throwing: elbow extension and internal rotation of the shoulder. These were altered when changing the ball weight, which resulted in differences in ball release velocity.

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Carina Bauer, Christine Graf, Anna M. Platschek, Heiko K. Strüder and Nina Ferrari

). Before pregnancy, 10.0% (n = 6) of the participants were underweight, 58.3% (n = 35) were normal weight, 18.3% (n = 11) were overweight, and 13.4% (n = 8) were obese. Table 1 Anthropometric Data Mean SD Range Age, n = 61, y 32.7 4.8 23.0–43.0 Pregnancy week, n = 61 13.3 3.4 7.0–20.0 Prepregnancy BMI, n

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Sarah Staal, Anders Sjödin, Ida Fahrenholtz, Karen Bonnesen and Anna Katarina Melin

range of health consequences in both female and male athletes and dancers ( Mountjoy et al., 2014 ). Premature osteoporosis, cardiovascular risk factors, and eating disorders with clinical signs, such as underweight, extremely low body fat, menstrual dysfunction (MD), and hypotension, are regarded as

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Davy Vancampfort, Brendon Stubbs, Mats Hallgren, Andreas Lundin, James Mugisha and Ai Koyanagi

( Koyanagi & Stickley, 2015b ). Physical Health A stadiometer (cm) and a routinely calibrated electronic weighting scale (kg) were used to measure height and weight, respectively. Body mass index was calculated as weight (kg) divided by height (m 2 ), and categorized as <18.5 (underweight), 18.5–24.9 (normal

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Marcus Ngantcha, Eric Janssen, Emmanuelle Godeau, Virginie Ehlinger, Olivier Le-Nezet, François Beck and Stanislas Spilka

 Worse: <6 (29.6%) 25.9 31.4 .0036 30.03 29.67 ns 25.9 32.02 .0008  Better: ≥6 (70.4%) 74.2 68.6 69.97 70.33 74.12 67.98 Body mass index  Underweight (4.3%) 5 4 ns 4.23 4.26 ns 4.44 4.17 ns  Normal weight (84.0%) 85.5 83 ns 85.65 81.77 .0033 84.08 83.28 ns  Overweight (11.8%) 9.5 13.1 .0071 10.12 13

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Alina Cohen, Joseph Baker and Chris I. Ardern

Background:

Obesity is associated with impairments in health-related quality of life (HRQL), whereas physical activity (PA) is a promoter of HRQL.

Purpose:

The aim of this study was to investigate the interaction between BMI and PA with HRQL in younger and older Canadian adults.

Methods:

Data from the 2012 annual component of the Canadian Community Health Survey (N = 48,041; = 30 years) were used to capture self-reported body mass index (BMI-kg/m2), PA (kcal/kg/day, KKD), and HRQL. Interactions between PA and age on the BMI and HRQL relationship were assessed using general linear models and logistic regression.

Results:

Those younger (younger: μ = 0.79 ± 0.02; older: μ = 0.70 ± 0.02) and more active (active: μ = 0.82 ± 0.02; moderately active: μ = 0.77 ± 0.03; inactive: μ = 0.73 ± 0.01) reported higher HRQL. Older inactive underweight, normal weight, and overweight adults have lower odds of high HRQL.

Conclusion:

PA was associated with higher HRQL in younger adults. In older adults, BMI and PA influenced HRQL.

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Philip Noyes, Lawrence Fung, Karen K. Lee, Victoria E. Grimshaw, Adam Karpati and Laura DiGrande

Background:

Regular physical activity such as biking can help prevent obesity and chronic disease. Improvements in cycling infrastructure are associated with higher overall cycling rates, but less is known about bike lane utilization in low-income urban neighborhoods.

Methods:

During the summer of 2009, 4 Central Brooklyn streets with bicycle lanes were studied using camcorders to record for a total of 40 hours. Video recordings were coded for behaviors and characteristics of cyclists and motorists. An intercept survey (N = 324, 42% participation rate) captured information on cyclist demographics, behaviors, and attitudes.

Results:

1282 cyclists were observed on study streets. Cyclists were primarily male (80.0%) and non-White (54.5%). 9.9% of motorists drove in the bike lane and parked vehicles blocked the bike lane for 9.6% of the observational period. Of cyclists surveyed, 69.4% lived locally, 61.3% were normal weight or underweight, and 64.8% met recommended levels of physical activity by cycling 30+ minutes/day on 5+ days of the past week.

Conclusions:

Bicycle lanes were used by local residents of a low-income urban neighborhood. Compared with neighborhood residents overall, cyclists reported better health and health behaviors. Enhancing infrastructure that supports active transportation may be effective in reducing health inequities in low-income urban communities.

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Steven J. Howard, Caylee J. Cook, Rihlat Said-Mohamed, Shane A. Norris and Catherine E. Draper

Background:

An area of growth in physical activity research has involved investigating effects of physical activity on children’s executive functions. Many of these efforts seek to increase the energy expenditure of young children as a healthy and low-cost way to affect physical, health, and cognitive outcomes.

Methods:

We review theory and research from neuroscience and evolutionary biology, which suggest that interventions seeking to increase the energy expenditure of young children must also consider the energetic trade-offs that occur to accommodate changing metabolic costs of brain development.

Results:

According to Life History Theory, and supported by recent evidence, the high relative energy-cost of early brain development requires that other energy-demanding functions of development (ie, physical growth, activity) be curtailed. This is important for interventions seeking to dramatically increase the energy expenditure of young children who have little excess energy available, with potentially negative cognitive consequences. Less energy-demanding physical activities, in contrast, may yield psychosocial and cognitive benefits while not overburdening an underweight child’s already scarce energy supply.

Conclusions:

While further research is required to establish the extent to which increases in energy-demanding physical activities may compromise or displace energy available for brain development, we argue that action cannot await these findings.

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Katie J. Thralls, Jeanne F. Nichols, Michelle T. Barrack, Mark Kern and Mitchell J. Rauh

Early detection of the female athlete triad is essential for the long-term health of adolescent female athletes. The purpose of this study was to assess relationships between common anthropometric markers (ideal body weight [IBW] via the Hamwi formula, youth-percentile body mass index [BMI], adult BMI categories, and body fat percentage [BF%]) and triad components, (low energy availability [EA], measured by dietary restraint [DR], menstrual dysfunction [MD], low bone mineral density [BMD]). In the sample (n = 320) of adolescent female athletes (age 15.9± 1.2 y), Spearman’s rho correlations and multiple logistic regression analyses evaluated associations between anthropometric clinical cutoffs and triad components. All underweight categories for the anthropometric measures predicted greater likelihood of MD and low BMD. Athletes with an IBW ≤85% were nearly 4 times more likely to report MD (OR = 3.7, 95% CI [1.8, 7.9]) and had low BMD (OR = 4.1, 95% CI [1.2, 14.2]). Those in <5th percentile for their age-specific BMI were 9 times more likely to report MD (OR 9.1, 95% CI [1.8, 46.9]) and had low BMD than those in the 50th to 85th percentile. Athletes with a high BF% were almost 3 times more likely to report DR (OR = 2.8, 95% CI [1.4, 6.1]). Our study indicates that low age-adjusted BMI and low IBW may serve as evidence-based clinical indicators that may be practically evaluated in the field, predicting MD and low BMD in adolescents. These measures should be tested for their ability as tools to minimize the risk for the triad.