France, Giro d’Italia, and Vuelta a España), focusing on both competition formats: mass-start stages 4 and individual and team time trials (TTs). 5 Uphill TTs are important stages for general classification, and their intensity is related to not only ascent difficulty but also their position within the
Ana B. Peinado, Nuria Romero-Parra, Miguel A. Rojo-Tirado, Rocío Cupeiro, Javier Butragueño, Eliane A. Castro, Francisco J. Calderón and Pedro J. Benito
Benjamin Pageaux, Jean Theurel and Romuald Lepers
-distance triathlon. It is well known in the literature that exercise-induced changes in neuromuscular function are dependent not only on the intensity and duration of the exercise, 11 , 12 but also on the muscle contraction mode. 13 By comparing cycling versus uphill walking exercises (ie, 2 locomotion modes
Sarah J. Willis, Jules Gellaerts, Benoît Mariani, Patrick Basset, Fabio Borrani and Grégoire P. Millet
suggested 4 to use energy cost as opposed to oxygen cost, as it takes into account both V ˙ O 2 and substrate oxidation. This is particularly relevant when comparing level versus uphill running. Although RE is acknowledged as a key component for performance in distances up to a marathon (with oxygen cost
Glen M. Blenkinsop, Ying Liang, Nicholas J. Gallimore and Michael J. Hiley
, golf courses are variable environments, and conditions can change from shot to shot. A game of golf is more than likely to include uneven ground, requiring shots to be played from an uphill or downhill slope. The inclination between the golfer’s feet and the ball of 22 professional players over 16
Jinkyu Lee, Yong-Jin Yoon and Choongsoo S. Shin
during level walking, little is known about the biomechanical effects of load carriage during uphill walking. Uphill walking is a challenging task in daily life. For example, hiking is 1 of the most popular recreational activities. 23 The transition between level walking to uphill walking requires
Theo Ouvrard, Alain Groslambert, Gilles Ravier, Sidney Grosprêtre, Philippe Gimenez and Frederic Grappe
and resistive force when a leader follows a teammate (drafting effect) would represent the main biomechanical benefit of cycling performance. 1 However, the biomechanical equations of motion demonstrate that, when cycling uphill, most of the resistive force is due to gravitational resistance. 2 , 3
Michal Botek, Jakub Krejčí, Andrew J. McKune and Barbora Sládečková
These training-induced adaptations may potentially alter performance advantages of HRW supplementation in athletes with different abilities. Therefore, the primary aim of this study was to assess physiological, perceptual, and performance responses to an up-hill running race after administration of HRW
Graham E. Caldwell, Li Li, Steve D. McCole and James M. Hagberg
Alterations in kinetic patterns of pedal force and crank torque due to changes in surface grade (level vs. 8% uphill) and posture (seated vs. standing) were investigated during cycling on a computerized ergometer. Kinematic data from a planar cine analysis and force data from a pedal instrumented with piezoelectric crystals were recorded from multiple trials of 8 elite cyclists. These measures were used to calculate pedal force, pedal orientation, and crank torque profiles as a function of crank angle in three conditions: seated level, seated uphill, and standing uphill. The change in surface grade from level to 8% uphill resulted in a shift in pedal angle (toe up) and a moderately higher peak crank torque, due at least in part to a reduction in the cycling cadence. However, the overall patterns of pedal and crank kinetics were similar in the two seated conditions. In contrast, the alteration in posture from sitting to standing on the hill permitted the subjects to produce different patterns of pedal and crank kinetics, characterized by significantly higher peak pedal force and crank torque that occurred much later in the downstroke. These kinetic changes were associated with modified pedal orientation (toe down) throughout the crank cycle. Further, the kinetic changes were linked to altered nonmuscular (gravitational and inertial) contributions to the applied pedal force, caused by the removal of the saddle as a base of support.
Graham E. Caldwell, James M. Hagberg, Steve D. McCole and Li Li
Lower extremity joint moments were investigated in three cycling conditions: level seated, uphill seated and uphill standing. Based on a previous study (Caldwell, Li, McCole, & Hagberg, 1998), it was hypothesized that joint moments in the uphill standing condition would be altered in both magnitude and pattern. Eight national caliber cyclists were filmed while riding their own bicycles mounted to a computerized ergometer. Applied forces were measured with an instrumented pedal, and inverse dynamics were used to calculate joint moments. In the uphill seated condition the joint moments were similar in profile to the level seated but with a modest increase in magnitude. In the uphill standing condition the peak ankle plantarflexor moment was much larger and occurred later in the downstroke than in the seated conditions. The extensor knee moment that marked the first portion of the down-stroke for the seated trials was extended much further into the downstroke while standing, and the subsequent knee flexor moment period was of lower magnitude and shorter duration. These moment changes in the standing condition can be explained by a combination of more forward hip and knee positions, increased magnitude of pedal force, and an altered pedal force vector direction. The data support the notion of an altered contribution of both muscular and non-muscular sources to the applied pedal force. Muscle length estimates and muscle activity data from an earlier study (Li & Caldwell, 1996) support the unique roles of mono-articular muscles for energy generation and bi-articular muscles for balancing of adjacent joint moments in the control of pedal force vector direction.
Umberto Emanuele, Tamara Horn and Jachen Denoth
The main aim of this study was to compare the freely chosen cadence (FCC) and the cadence at which the blood lactate concentration at constant power output is minimized (optimal cadence [Copt]). The second aim was to examine the effect of a concomitant change of road incline and body position on FCC, the maximal external power output (Pmax), and the corresponding Copt.
FCC, Copt, and Pmax were analyzed under 2 conditions: cycling on level ground in a dropped position (LGDP) and cycling uphill in an upright position (UHUP). Seven experienced cyclists participated in this study. They cycled on a treadmill to test the 2 main hypotheses: Experienced cyclists would choose an adequate cadence close to Copt independent of the cycling condition, and FCC and Copt would be lower and Pmax higher for UHUP than with LGDP.
Most but not all experienced cyclists chose an adequate cadence close to Copt. Independent of the cycling condition, FCC and Copt were not statistically different. FCC (82.1 ± 11.1 and 89.3 ± 10.6 rpm, respectively) and Copt (81.5 ± 9.8 and 87.7 ± 10.9 rpm, respectively) were significantly lower and Pmax was significantly higher (2.0 ± 2.1%) for UHUP than for LGDP.
Most experienced cyclists choose a cadence near Copt to minimize peripheral fatigue at a given power output independent of the cycling condition. Furthermore, it is advantageous to use a lower cadence and a more upright body position during uphill cycling.