scientific research has shown that better sports performance is an evidence for greater neuromuscular adaptation in sports persons. 3 – 5 There is an abundance of research on the neuromuscular adaptations to lower body plyometric training. 6 – 9 Training adaptations due to upper body plyometric training
Deepika Singla and M. Ejaz Hussain
Ben M. Krings, Brandon D. Shepherd, Hunter S. Waldman, Matthew J. McAllister and JohnEric W. Smith
limited research examining the effects of CMR on a traditional RE session, the purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of CMR on performance during a high-volume upper body RE session. A secondary purpose was to examine heart rate [HR] responses, ratings of perceived exertion [RPE], and
Kenneth Coutts, Donald McKenzie, Christine Loock, Richard Beauchamp and Robert Armstrong
The purpose of this study was to describe the upper body exercise capabilities of youth with spina bifida, which would permit comparison of their abilities to norms. Forty-two children with spina bifida age 7 to 18 years were tested for maximal handgrip strength, anaerobic arm-crank power output, and peak arm-crank oxygen uptake. Analysis of variance was used to compare age, gender, and level of disability differences within the total sample. This analysis indicated no significant effect of level of disability on any of the upper body exercise capacity measures. Significant gender and age effects were noted for grip strength and anaerobic and aerobic capabilities. The sample exhibited handgrip strength comparable to that of nondisabled youth but low anaerobic power and peak oxygen uptake values. Some individual subjects, however, had “normal” values for all tests suggesting that a lower level of participation in regular physical activity rather than spina bifida per se may be responsible for the generally lower physical capacity found in the total sample.
Judith A. Siegel, David N. Camaione and Thomas G. Manfredi
To assess the effects of a group resistance exercise program on prepubescent children, an experimental group of boys (n = 26) and girls (n = 24), with a mean age of 8.4 ± 0.5 years, participated in 12 weeks of school based training. The program consisted of upper body exercise using hand-held weights, stretch tubing, balls, and self-supported movements. A control group of boys (n = 30) and girls (n = 16), mean age 8.6 ± 0.5 years, had a free-play period. Boys were significantly stronger than girls on all initial strength evaluations and were taller and had lesser skinfold sums. ANCOVA was used to evaluate pre/post changes in cable tensiometer elbow flexion and extension, right and left handgrip strength, pull-ups, flexed arm hang, sit-ups, sit-and-reach flexibility, and body composition parameters. Following the training period, significantly greater gains were made by the experimental group for right handgrip, flexed arm hang, pull-ups, and flexibility. Greater decreases in sum of skinfolds were also found. Training responses of boys and girls were similar. It was concluded that a group strength training program can be an effective means of increasing fitness levels and improving body composition in both boys and girls of this age.
Melissa M.B. Morrow, Bethany Lowndes, Emma Fortune, Kenton R. Kaufman and M. Susan Hallbeck
Upper body kinematic measures are widely used in ergonomics, 1 , 2 orthopedics, 3 , 4 and rehabilitation 5 – 7 to describe normal and pathological motion of the trunk, head, and arms. Traditional methods of motion capture utilize marker-based and electromagnetic laboratory-based systems to
Jerry L. Mayhew, Michael G. Bemben, Donna M. Rohrs, Fontaine C. Piper and Michael K. Willman
The purpose of this study was to compare the measurement of upper body power between male (n = 36) and female (n = 23) adolescent wrestlers and basketball players using the seated shot put (SSP) and a bench press power test (BPP). Boys were significantly different from girls on all physical and performance measures except age. The two SSP tests were significantly related to the two BPP tests in boys, but not in girls. Both SSP tests were significantly related to body mass and fat-free mass (FFM) in boys, but not in girls. Removing the effect of body mass or FFM reduced the relationships of both SSP tests with both BPP tests. BPP output was more dependent on age, height, and body mass in boys than in girls. The SSP may be measuring a different component of upper body power than a BPP test in either male or female adolescent athletes.
Billy Sperlich, Dennis-Peter Born, Christoph Zinner, Anna Hauser and Hans-Christer Holmberg
To evaluate whether upper-body compression affects power output and selected metabolic, cardiorespiratory, hemodynamic, and perceptual responses during three 3-min sessions of double-poling (DP) sprint.
Ten well-trained male athletes (25 ± 4 y, 180 ± 4 cm, 74.6 ± 3.2 kg) performed such sprints on a DP ski ergometer with and without a long-sleeved compression garment.
Mean power output was not affected by such compression (216 ± 25 W in both cases; P = 1.00, effect size [ES] = 0.00), although blood lactate concentration was lowered (P < .05, ES = 0.50–1.02). Blood gases (ES = 0.07–0.50), oxygen uptake (ES = 0.04–0.28), production of carbon dioxide (ES = 0.01–0.46), heart rate (ES = 0.00–0.21), stroke volume (ES = 0.33–0.81), and cardiac output (ES = 0.20–0.91) were also all unaffected by upper-body compression (best P = 1.00). This was also the case for changes in the tissue saturation index (ES = 0.45–1.17) and total blood content of hemoglobin (ES = 0.09–0.85), as well as ratings of perceived exertion (ES = 0.15–0.88; best P = .96).
The authors conclude that the performance of well-trained athletes during 3 × 3-min DP sprints will not be enhanced by upper-body compression.
Gert Ulrich and Mario Parstorfer
There are limited data on postactivation potentiation’s (PAP) effects after plyometric conditioning contractions (CCs), especially in the upper body. This study compared plyometric CCs with concentric-eccentric and eccentric CCs aiming to improve upper-body power performance due to a PAP effect.
Sixteen resistance-trained males completed 3 experimental trials in a randomized order that comprised either a plyometric (PLY), a concentric-eccentric (CON), or an eccentric-only (ECC) CC. Maximal muscle performance, as determined by a ballistic bench-press throw, was measured before (baseline) and 1, 4, 8, 12, and 16 min after each CC.
Compared with baseline, bench-press power was significantly enhanced only in CON (P = .046, ES = 0.21) after 8 min of recovery. However, the results obtained from the comparisons between baseline power performance and the individual best power performance for each subject after each CC stimulus showed significant increases in PLY (P < .001, ES = 0.31) and CON (P < .001, ES = 0.38). There was no significant improvement in ECC (P = .106, ES = 0.11).
The results indicate that only CON CCs generated increases in bench-press power after 8 min of rest. However, considering an individual rest interval, PLY CCs led to an enhanced power performance in the bench-press exercise, and this increase was comparable to that induced by CON CCs. Due to the easy practical application before a competition, PLY CCs might be an interesting part of warm-up strategies aiming to improve upper-body power performance by reason of PAP.
Martin Aedma, Saima Timpmann and Vahur Ööpik
Peak power (PP) and mean power (MP) attained in upper body sprint performance test are considered important factors for competitive success in wrestling. This study aimed to determine whether acute caffeine ingestion would better maintain PP and MP across a simulated competition day in wrestling.
In a double-blind, counterbalanced, crossover study, 14 trained wrestlers ingested either placebo or 5 mg/kg caffeine and completed four 6-min upper body intermittent sprint performance tests with 30-min recovery periods between consecutive tests. PP and MP were recorded during and blood lactate concentration was measured before and after each test. Ratings of perceived fatigue (RPF) and exertion (RPE) were recorded before and after each test, respectively. Heart rate (HR) was monitored across the whole testing period.
Mean power decreased across four tests in both trials (p < .05), but the reduction in PP (from 277.2 ± 34.6 W to 257.3 ± 45.1 W; p < .05) only occurred in caffeine trial. Both pretest blood lactate concentration and HR were higher in caffeine than in placebo trial (p < .05) in the third and fourth tests. No between-trial differences occurred in RPF or RPE.
Under simulated competition day conditions mimicking four consecutive wrestling matches, acute caffeine ingestion has a partially detrimental effect on upper body intermittent sprint performance in trained wrestlers. Elevated HR and blood lactate levels observed between tests after caffeine ingestion suggest that caffeine may impair recovery between consecutive maximal efforts.
Daniel G. Baker and Robert U. Newton
To examine the upper body strength, speed, power, and strength-endurance of rugby-league players of different ranks. These data could provide information pertinent to the importance of these factors for different grades of rugby league and for positional groups in those different grades.
Sixty rugby-league players, 20 participants each in the elite, national first-division league (NRL), state-based second-division league (SRL), and intracity third-division league (CRL), served as subjects. Maximal upper body strength, power, speed, and muscle endurance were assessed using the bench-press exercise.
The NRL players were significantly stronger (141.4 ± 15.4 kg) than SRL (126.6 ± 13.1 kg, ES = 1.033) and CRL (108.1 kg ± 11.6, ES = 2.458) and more powerful (NRL = 680 ± 99 W) than SRL (591 ± 72 W, ES = 1.037) and CRL players (521 ± 71 W, ES = 1.867). The differences in speed (NRL = 345 ± 31 W, SRL = 319 ± 29 W, CRL = 303 ± 29 W; ES = 0.884 and 1.409, respectively) and strength-endurance (NRL = 36 ± 7 reps, SRL = 32 reps ± 7, CRL = 24 ± 5 reps; ES = 0.521 and 1.984, respectively) were not as pronounced.
Of the tests undertaken, maximal strength best describes players who attain NRL ranking. Maximum power and strength-endurance were also strong descriptors of attainment of NRL level. Upper body speed appears less likely to strongly discriminate between players who attain NRL level and those who do not. These results tended to hold true across the different team positional groupings.