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Todd G. Goldbeck and George J. Davies


Functional testing of patients is essential to clinicians because it provides objective data for documentation that can be used for serial reassessment and progression through a rehabilitation program. Furthermore, new tests should require minimal time, space, and money to implement.


To determine the test-retest reliability of the Closed Kinetic Chain (CKC) Upper Extremity Stability Test.


Twenty-four male college students.


Each subject was tested initially and again 7 days later. Each subject performed 1 submaximal test followed by 3 maximal efforts. A 45-second rest was given after each 15-second test. The 2 maximal-test scores were averaged and compared with those from the retest.


The intraclass correlation coefficient was .922 for test-retest reliability. A paired-samples t test (.927) was conducted, and the coefficient of stability was .859. The results indicate that the CKC Upper Extremity Stability Test is a reliable evaluation tool.

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Kevin Laudner, Jose Vazquez, Noelle Selkow, and Keith Meister


Baseball players, specifically pitchers, with symptomatic neurovascular occlusion often initially complain of arm fatigue and loss of ball control and velocity. As the compression continues complaints may manifest in dull pain, paresthesia, and decreased grip strength.


To determine the correlation between upper-extremity blood-flow volume and grip strength among baseball pitchers.




Athletic training room.


66 professional baseball pitchers (age 21.6 ± 2.0 y, height 186.9 ± 5.7 cm, mass 91.3 ± 10.9 kg) before the start of spring training.

Main Outcome Measures:

Diagnostic ultrasound was used to measure upper-extremity blood-flow volume with the throwing shoulder in a resting position and in a provocative position. Grip strength was measured with participants seated and their throwing-arm elbow flexed to 90°. Pearson product–moment correlation coefficients were used to determine the strength of the relationships between blood-flow volume in the 2 arm positions and grip strength (P < .05).


No significant relationship was found between blood-flow volume in the resting position and grip strength (r = .03, P = .81); however, a strong positive correlation was found in the 2nd provocative position (r = .67, P = .001). This relationship indicates that as blood-flow volume tested in a provocative shoulder position decreases, so does grip strength.


A strong positive relationship was found in pitchers, demonstrating that as upper-extremity blood-flow volume while in the provocative shoulder position decreases, so does grip strength.

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Cátia Paixão, Ana Tavares, and Alda Marques

, 3-item Rosow–Breslau scale) ( Hebert et al., 2010 ; Rycroft et al., 2018 ). Few studies have addressed the essential role of the upper extremity in performing ADLs ( Kumahara, Tanaka, & Schutz, 2004 ), despite knowing that upper extremity functional activity limitations lead to a higher level of

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Olivia Bartlett and James L. Farnsworth II

kinesiophobia in patients with upper-extremity injuries. Upper-extremity injuries can negatively impact activities of daily living (eg, driving, changing clothes, reaching), leading to diminished quality of life and overall well-being. 7 The substantial influence that the upper-extremity has on an individual

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Nazli Busra Cigercioglu, Hande Guney-Deniz, Ezgi Unuvar, Filiz Colakoglu, and Gul Baltaci

performance tests, such as closed kinetic chain upper-extremity stability (CKCUEST), seated medicine ball throw (SMBT), and grip strength, can be applied for assessing upper-extremity strength and power in tennis players and in college football players. 1 , 12 Based on previous findings, 13 a CKCUEST score

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Mark A. Sutherlin

measures may not be equivalent across sports. Swimming is another overhead sport where the majority of injuries occur at the shoulder. 4 Clinicians who administer PRO measures during care may then opt to implement a single shoulder-specific or upper extremity region-specific PRO measure to help reduce

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Kyle Southall, Matt Price, and Courtney Wisler

Key Points ▸ This case presents the signs and symptoms of an athletics-related Morel-Lavallée lesion in the upper extremity. ▸ Morel-Lavallée lesions in the athletics setting can be easily misdiagnosed and/or mismanaged. ▸ Proper management can significantly decrease prolonged symptoms and long

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Allison J. Nelson, Patrick T. Hall, Katherine R. Saul, and Dustin L. Crouch

, muscle activations and joint moments) during motor tasks. Many existing WPSEs were designed and evaluated for occupational settings to support the weight of the upper extremity while the shoulder maintains static elevated postures. 29 , 30 However, it is unclear whether a WPSE designed for static tasks would be

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Gary B. Wilkerson, Dustin C. Nabhan, and Ryan T. Crane

upper-extremity visual-motor test for measurement of Simple RT failed to demonstrate a difference between recently concussed and control athletes, 6 which suggests that the simple task may have been insufficiently sensitive to detect a subtle difference in performance capabilities. 5 Decisions about

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Kevin E. Wilk, Christopher A. Arrigo, and James R. Andrews

The use of closed kinetic chain exercise has grown in the past several years. Closed kinetic chain exercises for the lower extremity have been firmly established in the literature and have been strongly recommended as an integral part of rehabilitation of the patient with anterior cruciate ligament injury. While the scientific and clinical rationale for using closed kinetic chain exercise for the lower extremity appears obvious, the scientific rationale for using closed kinetic chain exercise for the upper extremity is less clear. The purpose of this manuscript is to discuss the scientific rationale for closed kinetic chain for the upper extremity patient. In addition, exercise drills to enhance dynamic stability of the glenohumeral joint are discussed, and a rationale for using these exercises for specific glenohumeral joint pathologies is provided. The concepts of closed and open kinetic chain as applied to the lower extremity may not apply to the upper extremity due to the unique anatomical and biomechanical features as well as the function of the shoulder. It is recommended that clinicians use both closed kinetic chain and open kinetic chain exercises when treating the shoulder patient.