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Anthony C. Santago II, Meghan E. Vidt, Xiaotong Li, Christopher J. Tuohy, Gary G. Poehling, Michael T. Freehill, and Katherine R. Saul

function due to age-related declines in strength. 2 , 3 Further, older adults employ compensatory kinematic strategies, such as decreasing their thoracohumeral elevation angle 4 when performing upper limb tasks. 4 – 7 These age-related declines can be exacerbated by a rotator cuff tear

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Lin Li, Yanxia Li, Chang-hong Wu, and Hao Fu

upper limb can cause problems other than damage to the ligaments, labrum, or tendons; it may also affect neuromuscular control, resulting in a greater risk of joint disorders such as subacromial impingement syndrome ( Ettinger, Shapiro, & Karduna, 2017 ) and chronic rotator cuff pathology ( Anderson

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Flávia Cavalcante Monteiro Melo, Kátia Kamila Félix de Lima, Ana Paula Knackfuss Freitas Silveira, Kesley Pablo Morais de Azevedo, Isis Kelly dos Santos, Humberto Jefferson de Medeiros, José Carlos Leitão, and Maria Irany Knackfuss

of upper limbs, contributing directly to the performance of activities of daily life (ADL), confirming one more time that the strengthened muscle is imperative for a rapid rehabilitation. Described as the maximum quantity of energy that a muscle or a muscle group produces in a given movement at a

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Abderrahmane Rahmani, Pierre Samozino, Jean-Benoit Morin, and Baptiste Morel

Bench-press exercise is often used as a simple test to evaluate the upper-limb force, velocity, and power output. 1 – 3 These muscle parameters are usually determined using a force platform 4 , 5 or kinematic systems such as optical encoders 6 , 7 or linear transducers. 1 , 8 – 10 Although

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Ernest Baiget, Joshua Colomar, and Francisco Corbi

the ball seem necessary to produce maximal SV. 5 , 6 In addition, activating and coordinating efficiently diverse segments in the whole kinetic chain, involving lower limbs, trunk, and upper limbs, 7 is paramount in parallel with the use of elastic energy and muscle preload. 8 Although all phases

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Ghazaleh Azizpour, Matteo Lancini, Giovanni Incerti, Paolo Gaffurini, and Giovanni Legnani

. Some studies have focused on estimating elasticity, viscosity, and inertial contributions during a voluntary movement to obtain the upper limbs’ mechanical properties. 11 , 12 Namely, Kodek and Munih 3 and Kodek 13 moved the upper limb using a robot manipulator in a quasi-static situation to

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Jamon Couch, Marc Sayers, and Tania Pizzari

independent and custom-made uniaxial load cells. An attachable, prefabricated, fixed upper-limb mold can be used in conjunction with the ForceFrame to stabilize the shoulder while measuring muscle force. The reliability of the ForceFrame is high when measuring hip adduction strength (average intraclass

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Diane E. Adamo, Neil B. Alexander, and Susan H. Brown

Our understanding of age-related declines in upper limb proprioceptive abilities is limited. Furthermore, the extent to which physical activity might ameliorate age-related changes in proprioception is not known. Upper limb proprioceptive acuity was examined in young and older (active and sedentary) right-handed adults using a wrist-position-matching task that varied in terms of processing demands. Older individuals were also classified according to their participation in tasks specific to the upper limb. Errors were greater for older than younger individuals. Older sedentary adults showed greater errors and performed movements less smoothly than older active adults. The nonspecific group showed greater errors and longer movement times than the upper-limb-specific group. In older adults, decreased ability to perceive limb position may be related to a sedentary lifestyle and declines associated with memory and transfer of proprioceptive information. Performing tasks specific to the upper limbs may reduce age-related declines in proprioception.

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Isabelle Rogowski, Gaële Ducher, Olivier Brosseau, and Christophe Hautier

This study aimed at demonstrating the asymmetry in volume between the dominant and nondominant upper limbs in tennis players, controlled for maturity status. Upper limb volumes on both sides were calculated in 72 tennis players and 84 control subjects, using the truncated cone method. The participants’ maturity status was determined using the predicted age at peak height velocity (PHV). The results showed significant larger side-to-side asymmetry in volume in tennis groups than in control groups. These findings suggested that, even before PHV, specific-sport adaptations occurred in the dominant upper limb in tennis players.

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Antony Costes, Nicolas A. Turpin, David Villeger, Pierre Moretto, and Bruno Watier

Several suggestions on the upper limb involvement in cycling exist but, to date, no study has quantified upper limb kinetics in this task. The aim of this study was to determine how crank power and pedaling position (seated or standing) affect upper limb kinetics. Handlebar loadings and upper limb kinematics were collected from 17 participants performing seated or standing pedaling trials in a random order at 6 crank powers ranging from 20% (112 ± 19 W) to 120% (675 ± 113 W) of their spontaneous sit-to-stand transition power. An inverse dynamics approach was used to compute 3D moments, powers, and works at the wrist, elbow, and shoulder joints. Over 29 parameters investigated, increases in crank power were associated with increases in the magnitudes of 23 and 20 of the kinetic variables assessed in seated and standing positions, respectively. The standing position was associated with higher magnitudes of upper limb kinetics. These results suggest that both upper and lower limbs should be considered in future models to better understand whole body coordination in cycling.