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Danae Dinkel, Dipti Dev, Yage Guo, Emily Hulse, Zainab Rida, Ami Sedani and Brian Coyle

Delaney et al 16 suggested that additional provider characteristics, such as urban or rural location, are needed to determine appropriate recommendations for policy and practice to provide important contextual information for providers. Further, in Nebraska, a majority of FCCHs are in rural areas. This

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Disa J. Smee, Anthony Walker, Ben Rattray, Julie A. Cooke, Ben G. Serpell and Kate L. Pumpa

Australian fire services, like many jurisdictions worldwide, are experiencing an ageing workforce. As occurs in the general population ( Kyle et al., 2001 ), increasing age is linked with changes in the body composition of urban firefighters ( Walker et al., 2014 ). Specifically, with age, urban

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Panos Constantinides and Stephen Silverman

. Understanding the reasons that may impact student participation will enable teachers to prepare more challenging classes that will be enjoyable and will motivate students to participate in school physical education. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate Cypriot urban elementary students

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Kun Liang

( Liang, 2012 , 2014a , 2014b , 2015 ; Ying & Yao, 2010 ). This is the first study to determine the longitudinal association between age identity and physical functioning among urban community-dwelling Chinese older adults using data from a cohort of 5,788 participants. The theoretical framework for

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Constantinos A. Loucaides

Background:

A number of studies indicate higher prevalence of overweight and obesity among rural school children. The purpose of this study was to examine the differences in personal, social, and environmental correlates of physical activity between school location (urban versus rural) and gender.

Methods:

Middle school children (N = 676) from different districts in Cyprus completed questionnaires assessing physical activity and potential correlates.

Results:

Children from rural schools reported higher friend support for physical activity and more ease of walk to a bus station from their home. Urban school children reported higher presence of sidewalks in their neighborhood. Boys reported more hours per day playing outside and higher enjoyment and friend support for physical activity than girls, whereas girls reported higher means in the variable ‘I see a lot of people walking or being physically active in my neighborhood’. Significant two-way interactions between gender and school location were noted with rural school girls having less favorable scores in a number of correlates of physical activity.

Conclusions:

More studies are needed to further understand the higher incidence of overweight and obesity observed among rural youth. Girls from rural areas may be targeted as a priority group for promoting physical activity.

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Lin Yu, Hanhan Xue and Joshua I. Newman

Municipal Government initiated broad-sweeping reforms intended to utilize Shanghai’s increasingly liquid capital, modernizing infrastructure, enduring cosmopolitanism, and population-based economic capacities to transform the urban sport landscape—and thereby elevate investment, consumerism, tourism, and

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Nate McCaughtry, Jeffrey Martin, Pamela Hodges Kulinna and Donetta Cothran

This study used an emotional geographies theoretical framework to analyze the emotional dimensions of urban teacher change. Fifteen urban physical education teachers involved in a comprehensive curriculum reform project were interviewed and observed multiple times across one school year. Data were analyzed using inductive analysis, and trustworthiness measures included triangulation, peer debriefing, researcher journals, and member checks. Teachers reported that emotional dimensions related to their urban students, colleagues, and status heavily influenced their engagement in the project. The discussion section maps the emotional dimensions of these teachers’ change experiences onto an emotional geographies framework that situates their experiences in change literature and offers a roadmap for future reform initiatives.

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Tegan K. Boehmer, Christine M. Hoehner, Kathleen W. Wyrwich, Laura K. Brennan Ramirez and Ross C. Brownson

Background:

Neighborhood environmental supports for physical activity are assessed via telephone surveys (perceived) and environmental audits (observed), but the correspondence between methods is not known.

Methods.

Surveys (N = 1068) and audits were conducted concurrently in four diverse urban settings to measure recreational facilities, land use, transportation environment, and aesthetics. Agreement was assessed with kappa (κ) statistics.

Results.

Kappa values ranged from –0.06 to 0.47 for the 28 item-pairs: 17 item-pairs were classified as poor agreement (κ ≤ 0.20), 10 as fair (κ = 0.21-0.40), and 1 as good (κ = 0.47). The highest agreement was observed for proximity to parks, trails, and various land-use destinations, presence of sidewalks, and measures of neighborhood maintenance and cleanliness.

Conclusions.

Methodological issues and/or the likelihood of capturing distinct aspects of the environment may explain the generally low correspondence between survey and audit measures. Our findings should help researchers make informed decisions regarding measurement of environmental supports for physical activity.

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Gregory W. Heath and John Bilderback

Recent evidence suggests that policies and environmental approaches that support urban design and land use at the community and street/neighborhood level contributes to physical activity and active living among residents of communities. 1 , 2 However, there is a paucity of studies examining

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Robert M. Ojiambo, Chris Easton, Jose A. Casajús, Kenn Konstabel, John J. Reilly and Yannis Pitsiladis

Background:

Urbanization affects lifestyles in the developing world but no studies have assessed the impact on objectively measured physical activity in children and adolescents from sub-Saharan Africa.

Purpose:

To compare objectively measured habitual physical activity, sedentary time, and indices of adiposity in adolescents from rural and urban areas of Kenya.

Methods:

Physical activity and sedentary time were assessed by accelerometry for 5 consecutive days in 97 (50 female and 47 male) rural and 103 (52 female and 51 male) urban adolescents (mean age 13 ± 1 years). Body Mass Index (BMI) and BMI z-scores were used to assess adiposity.

Results:

Rural males spent more time in moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) compared with urban males (68 ± 22 vs. 50 ± 17 min, respectively; P < .001). Similarly, Rural females spent more time in MVPA compared with urban females (62 ± 20 vs. 37 ± 20 min, respectively; P < .001). Furthermore, there were significant differences in daily sedentary time between rural and urban subjects. Residence (rural vs. urban) significantly (P < .001) influenced BMI z-score (R 2 = .46).

Conclusion:

Rural Kenyan adolescents are significantly more physically active (and less sedentary) and have lower indices of adiposity compared with urban adolescents and this is a likely refection of the impact of urbanization on lifestyle in Kenya.