Urine doping controls have become a regular part of athletes’ lives, and approximately one half of all athletes suffer at least once from urination difficulties during these tests. Previous studies could not satisfactorily explain why athletes are affected. This paper examines the relation between urination difficulties during doping controls and psychological reactance. It is assumed that psychological reactance is positively correlated to urination difficulties. The results are based on a study involving 187 German-speaking athletes participating in elite sports at the national team level. In addition to demographic data and information about doping controls, the Psychogenic Urine Retention during Doping Controls Scale (PURDS) and Therapeutic Reactance Scale (TRS) were used. The results do not confirm our hypothesis and indicate that reactance correlates negatively rather than positively to urination difficulties during doping controls. The results are surprising as they suggest that athletes who show low oppositional potential toward doping rules are most strongly affected. Suggestions for interventions are given.
Anne-Marie Elbe and Ralf Brand
John B. Leiper and Ron J. Maughan
Total body water (TBW) and water turnover rates (WTR) of 8 competitive swimmers (SW) and 6 age-matched non-training individuals (CON) were determined using deuterium oxide dilution and elimination. During the 7-day study, individuals in the SW group trained 9 times, swimming on average 42.4 km, while the CON group did no regular exercise. Water temperature in the swimming pool was between 26 and 29 °C during training sessions. Body mass at the beginning and end of the study period remained essentially the same in the SW (67.8 ± 6.3 kg) and CON (61.1 ± 8.5 kg) groups. Mean ± SD TBW of the SW (38.7 ± 5.6 L) was similar to that of the CON (37.5 ± 8:0 L). Mean WTR was faster in the SW (54 ± 18 ml · kg · day−1) than the CON (28 ± 21 ml · kg · day−1). Mean daily urine output was similar in the SW (14 ± 5 ml · kg · day−1) and CON (14 ± 3 ml · kg · day−1). Calculated non-renal daily water loss was faster in the SW (41 ± 21 ml · kg · day−1) than the CON (13 ± 20 ml · kg · day−1). This study demonstrates that WTR are faster in young swimmers who exercise strenuously in cool water than in non-training individuals and that the difference was due to the approximately 3-times greater non-renal water losses that the exercising group incurred. This suggests that exercise-induced increases in sweat rates are a major factor in water loss in swimmers training in cool water.
Dale R. Wagner and James D. Cotter
Ultrasound is an appealing tool to assess body composition, combining the portability of a field method with the accuracy of a laboratory method. However, unlike other body composition methods, the effect of hydration status on validity is unknown. This study evaluated the impact of acute hydration changes on ultrasound measurements of subcutaneous fat thickness and estimates of body fat percentage. In a crossover design, 11 adults (27.1 ± 10.5 years) completed dehydration and hyperhydration trials to alter body mass by approximately ±2%. Dehydration was achieved via humid heat (40 °C, 60% relative humidity) with exercise, whereas hyperhydration was via ingestion of lightly salted water. Ultrasound measurements were taken at 11 body sites before and after each treatment. Participants lost 1.56 ± 0.58 kg (−2.0 ± 0.6%) during the dehydration trial and gained 0.90 ± 0.21 kg (1.2 ± 0.2%) during the hyperhydration trial even after urination. The sum of fat thicknesses as measured by ultrasound differed by <0.90 mm across trials (p = .588), and ultrasound estimates of body fat percentage differed by <0.5% body fat. Ultrasound measures of subcutaneous adipose tissue were unaffected by acute changes in hydration status by extents beyond which are rare and overtly self-correcting, suggesting that this method provides reliable and robust body composition results even when subjects are not euhydrated.
ZhiWei Liu, Ting Chen, Mingkang Shen, Kai Li, ChunJie Ma, Antonnette Ketlhoafetse, and XiangYun Liu
Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a noncancerous enlargement of the prostate gland. As the prostate becomes larger, it can press on the urinary tract and cause lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), which include urinary hesitation, frequent urination, acute urination, and nocturnal urination
Anita M. Rivera-Brown and José R. Quiñones-González
, CA) if the test was in the playing field. Bottles with fluid for ad libitum drinking were weighed before and after the session with scales accurate to 0.1 g (XP-3000; Denver Instrument Company, Arvada, CO) or 1 g (Ohaus CS2000 Compact Scale, Pine Brook, NJ). Athletes who needed to urinate during the
Zachary K. Winkelmann, Ethan J. Roberts, and Kenneth E. Games
long to complete, increased their desire to urinate, or decreased hamstring flexibility. Procedures Participants reported to the laboratory and completed the informed consent process. Participants then completed the health and history questionnaire to determine inclusion. If the criteria were met
Benjamin A. McKay, Jace A. Delaney, Andrew Simpkin, Theresa Larkin, Andrew Murray, Charles R. Pedlar, Nathan A. Lewis, and John A. Sampson
(Callegari SpA; Catellani Group, Parma, Italy) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. 12 A total of 324 FORT and FORD samples were collected. Urine Samples Participants were instructed to urinate in a 3-L container during a period of 10 hours (approximately 7:00 PM–5.00 AM) with the last sample being
Ronald J. Maughan, Phillip Watson, Philip A.A. Cordery, Neil P. Walsh, Samuel J. Oliver, Alberto Dolci, Nidia Rodriguez-Sanchez, and Stuart D.R. Galloway
/athletes around the ability to retain fluids for longer, particularly during periods when there may be limited access to beverages and when access to facilities for urination are restricted—for example, when traveling. To date, there have been no systematic evaluations of the effect of key beverage components on
Rodrigo dos Santos Guimarães, Alcides Correa de Morais Junior, Raquel Machado Schincaglia, Bryan Saunders, Gustavo Duarte Pimentel, and João Felipe Mota
, including stomachache and stomach discomfort, nausea, dizziness, headache, flatulence, the urge to urinate and evacuate, eructation/belching, heartburn, bloating sensation, intestinal pain, the urge to vomit, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal distention. The athletes were asked about symptoms and were
Ken Payne and Curtis Edge
for things that you could do? Kelly : All the time. The death of two skiers in an avalanche 3 and a half years ago in Solden, Austria. A DUI (driving under the influence) with our Ski and Snowboarding CEO (chief executive officer). We had a young athlete urinate in an airplane on a passenger. I had