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Anne-Marie Elbe and Ralf Brand

Urine doping controls have become a regular part of athletes’ lives, and approximately one half of all athletes suffer at least once from urination difficulties during these tests. Previous studies could not satisfactorily explain why athletes are affected. This paper examines the relation between urination difficulties during doping controls and psychological reactance. It is assumed that psychological reactance is positively correlated to urination difficulties. The results are based on a study involving 187 German-speaking athletes participating in elite sports at the national team level. In addition to demographic data and information about doping controls, the Psychogenic Urine Retention during Doping Controls Scale (PURDS) and Therapeutic Reactance Scale (TRS) were used. The results do not confirm our hypothesis and indicate that reactance correlates negatively rather than positively to urination difficulties during doping controls. The results are surprising as they suggest that athletes who show low oppositional potential toward doping rules are most strongly affected. Suggestions for interventions are given.

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John B. Leiper and Ron J. Maughan

Total body water (TBW) and water turnover rates (WTR) of 8 competitive swimmers (SW) and 6 age-matched non-training individuals (CON) were determined using deuterium oxide dilution and elimination. During the 7-day study, individuals in the SW group trained 9 times, swimming on average 42.4 km, while the CON group did no regular exercise. Water temperature in the swimming pool was between 26 and 29 °C during training sessions. Body mass at the beginning and end of the study period remained essentially the same in the SW (67.8 ± 6.3 kg) and CON (61.1 ± 8.5 kg) groups. Mean ± SD TBW of the SW (38.7 ± 5.6 L) was similar to that of the CON (37.5 ± 8:0 L). Mean WTR was faster in the SW (54 ± 18 ml · kg · day−1) than the CON (28 ± 21 ml · kg · day−1). Mean daily urine output was similar in the SW (14 ± 5 ml · kg · day−1) and CON (14 ± 3 ml · kg · day−1). Calculated non-renal daily water loss was faster in the SW (41 ± 21 ml · kg · day−1) than the CON (13 ± 20 ml · kg · day−1). This study demonstrates that WTR are faster in young swimmers who exercise strenuously in cool water than in non-training individuals and that the difference was due to the approximately 3-times greater non-renal water losses that the exercising group incurred. This suggests that exercise-induced increases in sweat rates are a major factor in water loss in swimmers training in cool water.

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Zachary K. Winkelmann, Ethan J. Roberts and Kenneth E. Games

long to complete, increased their desire to urinate, or decreased hamstring flexibility. Procedures Participants reported to the laboratory and completed the informed consent process. Participants then completed the health and history questionnaire to determine inclusion. If the criteria were met

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Ronald J. Maughan, Phillip Watson, Philip A.A. Cordery, Neil P. Walsh, Samuel J. Oliver, Alberto Dolci, Nidia Rodriguez-Sanchez and Stuart D.R. Galloway

/athletes around the ability to retain fluids for longer, particularly during periods when there may be limited access to beverages and when access to facilities for urination are restricted—for example, when traveling. To date, there have been no systematic evaluations of the effect of key beverage components on

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Ken Payne and Curtis Edge

for things that you could do? Kelly : All the time. The death of two skiers in an avalanche 3 and a half years ago in Solden, Austria. A DUI (driving under the influence) with our Ski and Snowboarding CEO (chief executive officer). We had a young athlete urinate in an airplane on a passenger. I had

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Ida A. Heikura, Marc Quod, Nicki Strobel, Roger Palfreeman, Rita Civil and Louise M. Burke

clothing. (b) Unknown amounts of body fluid losses due to urination. (c) Only estimated amounts of fluid intakes due to drinking. (d) Unknown changes in muscle glycogen stores due to race and interaction of this with race carbohydrate intake. In addition, the cyclists felt that this measurement would have

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Bill I. Campbell, Danielle Aguilar, Laurin Conlin, Andres Vargas, Brad Jon Schoenfeld, Amey Corson, Chris Gai, Shiva Best, Elfego Galvan and Kaylee Couvillion

laboratory, participants urinated and then had their body weight measured on a physician beam scale (Health o meter; model 402KL; Pelstar, Inc., McCook, IL). Next, RMR testing procedures were conducted in a manner as previously described ( Campbell et al., 2016 ). Intraday and interday test

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João Pedro Nunes, Alex S. Ribeiro, Analiza M. Silva, Brad J. Schoenfeld, Leandro dos Santos, Paolo M. Cunha, Matheus A. Nascimento, Crisieli M. Tomeleri, Hellen C.G. Nabuco, Melissa Antunes, Letícia T. Cyrino and Edilson S. Cyrino

10 min prior to obtaining the bioelectrical impedance measurements and were previously instructed to urinate about 30 min before testing, refrain from ingesting food or drink in the last 4 hr prior to testing, avoid strenuous physical exercise for at least 24 hr prior to testing, refrain from the

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Eric D.B. Goulet, Adrien De La Flore, Félix A. Savoie and Jonathan Gosselin

entire experiment, except when they urinated and had their BM measured. Figure 1 —Timeline of 20-min experimental blocks. *Only in time blocks 0, 20, 40, and 60 min. **Only in time blocks 0, 60, 120, and 180 min. Hyperhydration Protocols Participants ingested a total of 30 ml/kg FFM of fluid provided at

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Deise J.A. Faleiro, Enaiane C. Menezes, Eduardo Capeletto, Felipe Fank, Rafaela M. Porto and Giovana Z. Mazo

, leisure domain Question: “Do you leak urine before getting to the bathroom after feeling a strong urge to urinate or without noticing?” Morrisroe et al. ( 2014 ) United States 2005–2007/cohort 248 F and 80 M, Hispanics, ≥60 years No Pedometer ICIQ-SF (Item 3) Marques et al. ( 2015 ) Brazil 2009–2010/cross