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Grace Yan, Dustin Steller, Nicholas M. Watanabe and Nels Popp

Designated the participatory web, Web 2.0 comprises formats such as blogs and social-networking sites that are driven by social connections and user participation ( Gauntlett, 2009 ). As a growing number of people have taken roles as knowledge creators, curators, and information remixers of digital

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Richard R. Suminski, Gregory M. Dominick, Philip Saponaro, Elizabeth M. Orsega-Smith, Eric Plautz and Matthew Saponaro

a park and systematically record data on users along with contextual information (e.g., accessibility) ( McKenzie, 2016 ; Mckenzie, Cohen, Sehgal, Williamson, & Golinelli, 2006 ). Although the SOPARC is considered the “gold-standard” for measuring park use in relation to PA behavior, the method has

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Hugh Gilmore, Stephen Shannon, Gerard Leavey, Martin Dempster, Shane Gallagher and Gavin Breslin

.g., improve lean body mass, reduce fat) and many AAS users conduct their own risk-benefit analyses, to the extent that the cosmetic benefits of AAS appear to outweigh the negative health risks ( Kanayama & Pope, 2018 ). In contrast to recreational drugs (e.g., narcotics) typically encountered during adolescence

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Galen Clavio, Lauren M. Burch and Evan L. Frederick

The purpose of this study was to employ systems theory to analyze the social network of a Big Ten football team’s Twitter community. An identifiable network was found among the observed actors (N = 139), with fan accounts composing the largest percentage of the network. The number of observed reciprocal interactions was low, only 11.8% of the interactions and only 21.5% of the nodes. Traditionalmedia accounts frequently interacted with other media accounts, while fans interacted primarily with other fans. Overall, nontraditional-media accounts’ users were most focused on interactivity. Team-related accounts were almost nonexistent in the interactive network. A systems-theory-based network was found in terms of input, transformation, and output components. The feedback loop was the weak link in the network, indicating a possible lack of importance of direct feedback in Twitter social networks.

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Julian A. Reed, Andrea Morrison and Cheryl-Anne Arant

Background:

The goal of this study was to examine activity behavior differences between users of natural-surface versus paved trails.

Methods:

The System for Observing Play and Recreation in Communities (SOPARC) direct observation instrument was used to measure activity and demographic information. Survey data were used to compare perception difference and body mass index (BMI) values among trail users.

Results:

Significantly more paved-trail users were female (F = 10.63, P = .001). A larger percentage of paved-trail users reported it to be very safe (F = 4.462, P = .036). Natural-surface-trail users participated in more vigorous activity (F = 83.93, P = .000). Natural-surface-trail users reported participating in longer activity bouts (F = 5.133; P = .024).

Conclusion:

Natural-surface-trail users engaged in more vigorous activity, for a longer duration, and had lower self-reported BMI values.

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Rebecca Davies, Dave Smith and Kevan Collier

This study examined the presence and experience of muscle dysmorphia among current and former steroid-using recreational bodybuilders. The Muscle Dysmorphia Inventory was given to 60 male participants, with 9 of these being interviewed to examine the predisposing factors, characteristics, and negative consequences of muscle dysmorphia comprising Lantz, Rhea, and Mayhew’s (2001) conceptual model. Quantitative results from the MDI data showed no significant differences between current and former steroid users in their experiences of muscle dysmorphia. In contrast, interviews suggested that former users appeared to be more susceptible to some of the characteristics of muscle dysmorphia, including physique protection and body distortion/dissatisfaction, which suggests perhaps a limitation in the amount of information that can be extracted from a questionnaire. These preliminary findings also raise concerns about the lack of a diagnostic tool available for the condition and are discussed in relation to Lantz et al.’s (2001) conceptual model.

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Michael S. Jeffress and William J. Brown

Power soccer (or powerchair football), the first competitive team sport for users of motorized wheelchairs, is receiving increased attention among people with disabilities, healthcare professionals, and academics. The present study provides a qualitative analysis of the experiences of 34 American power soccer athletes. Participant observation and in-depth interviews with 11 female and 23 male athletes were conducted between 2007 and 2013. Results indicate that involvement in power soccer provides participants with an increased sense of empowerment, acquisition of social capital, and psychosocial benefits, including a deep satisfaction of the desire to participate in competitive sports and an opportunity to be independent. Implications of these findings for improving the quality of life of people with physical disabilities and for future research are discussed.

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Galen Clavio

Internet-based sport communication mediums represent a crucial area of scholarly inquiry for the field. The continuing growth in popularity of blogs, message boards, and other Internet-specific types of sport communication presents sport communication scholars with a plethora of avenues for research. This commentary examines one such avenue, through a survey administered to users on 14 college sport message boards. Survey results indicated that message-board users were primarily male (87.8%) and White (90.8%) and possessed at least an undergraduate degree (76.0%). In addition, 42.2% of users reported a household income of $100,000 or more per year. The analysis of the resulting demographic and usage data highlights some of the key aspects of this sample of users, including information relating to race, gender, income, education level, and salience of message-board use by both subscribers and nonsubscribers. These and other factors are presented as potential areas of future scholarly inquiry for sport communication researchers.

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Terry Eddy, Lamar Reams and Stephen Dittmore

As online business models have evolved, learning what drives users’ consumptive behaviors has gained increasing interest to sport researchers and sport properties. An increasing number of sport properties are expanding, and deriving revenues from, their presence on digital-media platforms (e.g., MLB, NBA, NFL, UFC, WWE, etc.). Of the sport properties mentioned, none are more reliant on digital-media activity than the Ultimate Fighting Championship. As such, the purpose of this study was to examine the motivations and related consumption habits of users of non-subscription-based (i.e., free-to-use) online message boards. Findings suggest that message-board users find value in the opportunities for interactivity and that heavy online mixed-martial-arts users watch more events and purchase more merchandise than those who spend less time online.

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Dana L. Wolff-Hughes, Eugene C. Fitzhugh, David R. Bassett and Christopher R. Cherry

Background:

Greenways (GW) can be sited and designed in a variety of ways. However, the extent to which siting and design relate to GW user’s demographic characteristics and physical activity (PA) is unknown. The purpose of this study was to compare 2 GWs that differed in terms of their siting and design, with respect to the aforementioned variables.

Methods:

A trail intercept survey measuring PA, modes of GW access, and demographics was administered on 2 GWs (GWlinear vs. GWloop), which varied in siting and design characteristics.

Results:

GWlinear (n = 216), compared with GWloop users (n = 400), accumulated significantly greater volumes of PA from both accessing and using the GW (P = .012). GWlinear users were more likely to be younger, male, and never married; they were also more likely to engage in transportational PA (10.6 vs. 0.3%, P ≤ .001) and access the GW via active transit modes (37.0% vs. 4.2%, P ≤ .001).

Conclusions:

GW siting and design appears to be related to user characteristics, and the types and volumes of PA performed. These results should be considered by GW planners and designers to best serve the PA needs of the community.