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Marquis Hawkins, Deirdre K. Tobias, Hala B. Alessa, Andrea K. Chomistek, Junaidah B. Barnett, Walter C. Willett and Susan E. Hankinson

relationships can inform intervention approaches. Therefore, we evaluated the association of PA intensity and type, using objective and self-reported measures of PA, with circulating sex hormones in premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Methods Study Population The Women’s Lifestyle Validation Study is an

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Kathryn J. DeShaw, Laura Ellingson, Yang Bai, Jeni Lansing, Maria Perez and Greg Welk

the leading consumer monitor, Fitbit Charge (FBC), using robust measurement agreement methods. While the study examines a single consumer device, a key goal of the paper is to introduce stronger methods for evaluation in monitor validation studies. Most research on consumer-based monitors to date have

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Maria Hagströmer, Barbara E. Ainsworth, Lydia Kwak and Heather R. Bowles


The quality of methodological papers assessing physical activity instruments depends upon the rigor of a study’s design.


We present a checklist to assess key criteria for instrument validation studies.


A Medline/PubMed search was performed to identify guidelines for evaluating the methodological quality of instrument validation studies. Based upon the literature, a pilot version of a checklist was developed consisting of 21 items with 3 subscales: 1) quality of the reported data (9 items: assess whether the reported information is sufficient to make an unbiased assessment of the findings); 2) external validity of the results (3 items: assess the extent to which the findings are generalizable); 3) internal validity of the study (9 items: assess the rigor of the study design). The checklist was tested for interrater reliability and feasibility with 6 raters.


Raters viewed the checklist as helpful for reviewing studies. They suggested minor wording changes for 8 items to clarify intent. One item was divided into 2 items for a total of 22 items.


Checklists may be useful to assess the quality of studies designed to validate physical activity instruments. Future research should test checklist internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and criterion validity.

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Deborah Kendzierski and Kenneth J. DeCarlo

Two studies examined the reliability and validity of the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (PACES). In Study 1, each subject rode an exercise bicycle under control and external focus conditions. The PACES had high internal consistency in both conditions. As predicted, subjects reported enjoying the exercise more, as measured by the PACES, in the external focus condition. Moreover, there was a significant negative correlation in the control condition between subjects' PACES scores and their scores on a measure of boredom proneness. In Study 2, each subject rode an exercise bicycle and jogged on a minitrampoline in separate sessions; each then chose one of these activities for their third session. Again, the PACES had high internal consistency. And, as predicted, there was a significant relationship between subjects' PACES ratings (completed after each activity) and their choices of activity. Test-retest reliability was high for jogging and moderate for bicycling. These studies provide preliminary evidence of the reliability and validity of the PACES.

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John Cairney, Heather Clark, Dean Dudley and Dean Kriellaars

Purpose: Physical literacy (PL) has been proposed as a key construct for understanding participation in physical activity. However, the lack of an agreed-upon definition and measure has hindered research on the topic. The current study proposed and analyzed the construct validity of a PL model comprised of motor competence, perceived competence, motivation, and enjoyment. Method: The authors tested three different models in two samples: Grade 5 (N = 1,448) and Grade 7 students (N = 698). Results: The PL construct was best represented as a hierarchical model in both the Grade 5, X2(295) = 791.90, p < .001; root mean square error of approximation = .035; and comparative-fit index = .97, and the Grade 7 samples, X2(295) = 557.21, p < .001; root mean square error of approximation = .036; and comparative-fit index = .98, samples. Discussion: Future work is needed to design and evaluate a PL measure consistent with our model. Such work will help generate further research and understanding of PL.

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Weimo Zhu and Miyoung Lee


The purpose of this study was to investigate the validity and reliability evidences of the Omron BI pedometer, which could count steps taken even when worn at different locations on the body.


Forty (20 males and 20 females) adults were recruited to walk wearing 5 sets, 1 set at a time, of 10 BI pedometers during testing, 1 each at 10 different locations. For comparison, they also wore 2 Yamax Digi-Walker SW-200 pedometers and a Dynastream AMP 331 activity monitor. The subjects walked in 3 free-living conditions: a fat sidewalk, stairs, and mixed conditions.


Except for a slight decrease in accuracy in the pant pocket locations, Omron BI pedometers counted steps accurately across other locations when subjects walked on the fat sidewalk, and the performance was consistent across devices and trials. When the subjects climbed up stairs, however, the absolute error % of the pant pocket locations increased significantly (P < .05) and similar or higher error rates were found in the AMP 331 and SW-200s.


The Omron BI pedometer can accurately count steps when worn at various locations on the body in free-living conditions except for front pant pocket locations, especially when climbing stairs.

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Steven Baumann and Keith Henschen

In recent years, the academic standards of the collegiate student athlete have become a popular subject within the sociology of sport. In January 1983, the top competitive division of the NCAA voted to make more stringent the academic standards for participants in Division I intercollegiate sports. This was known as Proposal 48, and although the vote was 2 to 1 in favor of it, much criticism was also voiced. This study examines the relationship between the American College Testing Program (ACT) and actual grade point average (GPA) for 753 male and female athletes at the University of Utah during a 10-year period. A secondary purpose was to determine the predictive validity of a predicted GPA formula (PGPA) and high school grade point average (HSGPA) as estimates of actual GPA. Other purposes were to determine the correlation of ACT, PGPA, and HSGPA with regard to gender, race, and sport. Pearson product-moment correlations were utilized to establish relationships between ACT scores, PGPA, and HSGPA with actual GPA. A multiple correlation coefficient was computed and a regression equation was established. In addition, a cross-validation was performed on the existing data. Results indicated that an equation combining ACT and HSGPA is the best predictor for Caucasians, while HSGPA alone is the best predictor for non-Caucasians. Factors other than ACT scores appear to be better predictors of academic success for the student-athlete, thus casting doubt upon the validity of Proposal 48 for the NCAA.

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Antonio Dello Iacono, Stephanie Valentin, Mark Sanderson and Israel Halperin

Purpose: To investigate the test–retest reliability and criterion validity of the isometric horizontal push test (IHPT), a newly designed test that selectively measures the horizontal component of maximal isometric force. Methods: Twenty-four active males with ≥3 years of resistance training experience performed 2 testing sessions of the IHPT, separated by 3 to 4 days of rest. In each session, subjects performed 3 maximal trials of the IHPT with 3 minutes of rest between them. The peak force outputs were collected simultaneously using a strain gauge and the criterion equipment consisting of a floor-embedded force plate. Results: The test–retest reliability of peak force values was nearly perfect (intraclass correlation coefficient = ∼.99). Bland–Altman analysis showed excellent agreement between days with nearly no bias for strain gauge 1.2 N (95% confidence interval [CI], −3 to 6 N) and force plate 0.8 N (95% CI, −4 to 6 N). A nearly perfect correlation was observed between the strain gauge and force plate (r = .98, P < .001), with a small bias of 8 N (95% CI, 1.2 to 15 N) in favor of the force plate. The sensitivity of the IHPT was also good, with smallest worthwhile change greater than standard error of measurement for both the strain gauge (smallest worthwhile change: 29 N; standard error of measurement: 17 N; 95% CI, 14 to 20 N) and the force plate (smallest worthwhile change: 29 N; standard error of measurement: 18 N; 95% CI, 14 to 19 N) devices. Conclusions: The high degree of validity, reliability, and sensitivity of the IHPT, coupled with its affordability, portability, ease of use, and time efficacy, point to the potential of the test for assessment and monitoring purposes.

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Alain P. Gauthier, Michel Lariviere and Nancy Young


The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) has received significant attention since the late 1990s. As it currently stands, its long version has been translated in English, German, Icelandic, Korean, Polish, Spanish, Turkish, and Vietnamese. However no data originating from the self-administered long version (last 7 days) of the IPAQ (IPAQ-SALV) is available for French Canadians. This study developed a self-administered long version (last 7 days) of the IPAQ in Canadian French (IPAQ-SALVCF) and assessed its psychometric properties.


The original IPAQ-SALV was linguistically translated, back-translated, and then reviewed in a focus group to ensure its meaning had been retained. Data were collected on a sample of 34 Francophones from Northern Ontario, and the results compared with step counts assessed by 7-day pedometer recording. Test-retest reliability was examined with a 24-hour delay between questionnaire completion on day 8 and day 9 of the protocol. Convergent validity was assessed by comparing IPAQ-SALVCF (last 7 days) results to average step counts over a 7-day period.


Intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) revealed that the IPAQ-SALVCF results were stable between days. The ICC for total activity scores was highest at 0.93 (CI: 0.86 to 0.97). Total activity scores were also significantly related to pedometer step counts (Pearson r = .66 P < .01). These results confirm those obtained in prior research


The IPAQ-SALVCF is a reliable and valid measure of physical activity for French Canadians.

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Elena Bergamini, Pélagie Guillon, Valentina Camomilla, Hélène Pillet, Wafa Skalli and Aurelio Cappozzo

The proper execution of the sprint start is crucial in determining the performance during a sprint race. In this respect, when moving from the crouch to the upright position, trunk kinematics is a key element. The purpose of this study was to validate the use of a trunk-mounted inertial measurement unit (IMU) in estimating the trunk inclination and angular velocity in the sagittal plane during the sprint start. In-laboratory sprint starts were performed by five sprinters. The local acceleration and angular velocity components provided by the IMU were processed using an adaptive Kalman filter. The accuracy of the IMU inclination estimate and its consistency with trunk inclination were assessed using reference stereophotogrammetric measurements. A Bland-Altman analysis, carried out using parameters (minimum, maximum, and mean values) extracted from the time histories of the estimated variables, and curve similarity analysis (correlation coefficient > 0.99, root mean square difference < 7 deg) indicated the agreement between reference and IMU estimates, opening a promising scenario for an accurate in-field use of IMUs for sprint start performance assessment.