It is currently unknown whether differences in physical fitness in older, nonexercising individuals affect cardiovascular risk profile and vascular function. To examine this, 40 healthy older individuals (age 69 ± 4 years) who were classified as nonexercising for the past 5-10 years were allocated to a lower physical fitness (LF; VO2max 20.7 ± 2.4 mlO2/min/kg) or higher physical fitness group (HF; VO2max 29.1 ± 2.8 mlO2/min/kg, p < .001). Cardiovascular risk profile was calculated using the Lifetime Risk Score (LRS). Vascular function was examined using the gold standard venous occlusion plethysmography to assess blood flow changes in response to intra-arterial infusion of acetylcholine, sodium nitroprusside, and L-NNMA. Daily life activity level of the HF group was higher compared with the LF group (p = .04). LRS was higher (p < .001) and blood flow ratio response to acetylcholine was lower (p = .04) in the LF group. This study shows that a higher physical fitness level is associated with better cardiovascular health and vascular function in nonexercising older individuals.
Madelijn H. Oudegeest-Sander, Dick H.J. Thijssen, Paul Smits, Arie P.J. van Dijk, Marcel G.M. Olde Rikkert and Maria T.E. Hopman
Austin T. Robinson, Adriana Mazzuco, Ahmad S. Sabbahi, Audrey Borghi-Silva and Shane A. Phillips
.A. ( 2014 ). Massage therapy restores peripheral vascular function after exertion . Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 95 ( 6 ), 1127 – 1134 . PubMed ID: 24583315 doi:10.1016/j.apmr.2014.02.007 10.1016/j.apmr.2014.02.007 Franklin , N.C. , Robinson , A.T. , Bian , J.T. , Ali , M
Soo Hyun Park, Eun Sun Yoon, Yong Hee Lee, Chul-Ho Kim, Kanokwan Bunsawat, Kevin S. Heffernan, Bo Fernhall and Sae Young Jae
We tested the hypothesis that an active video game following a high-fat meal would partially prevent the unfavorable effect of a high-fat meal on vascular function in overweight adolescents.
Twenty-four overweight adolescents were randomized to either a 60-minute active video game (AVG) group (n = 12) or seated rest (SR) as a control group (n = 12) after a high-fat meal. Blood parameters were measured, and vascular function was measured using brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) at baseline and 3 hours after a high-fat meal.
No significant interaction was found in any blood parameter. A high-fat meal significantly increased blood triglyceride and glucose concentrations in both groups in a similar manner. Brachial artery FMD significantly decreased in the SR group (13.8 ± 3.2% to 11.8 ± 2.5), but increased in the AVG group (11.4 ± 4.0% to 13.3 ± 3.5), with a significant interaction (P = .034).
These findings show that an active video game attenuated high-fat meal-induced endothelial dysfunction. This suggests that an active video game may have a cardioprotective effect on endothelial function in overweight adolescents when exposed to a high-fat meal.
Napasakorn Chuensiri, Hirofumi Tanaka and Daroonwan Suksom
To determine the acute effects of high-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE) on vascular function.
Lean (n = 18, BMI = 17.1 ± 0.7) and obese (n = 17, BMI = 25.4 ± 0.8) prepubescent boys aged 10.2 ± 0.2 years were studied. HIIE consisted of 8 sets of 20 s of cycle ergometry at 100, 130, and 170% of VO2peak alternating with 10 s of rests.
The obese group had higher (p < .05) body mass, BMI, body fat percentage, waist-hip ratio than the lean group. Carotid artery wall thickness and arterial stiffness as assessed by brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) were greater in the obese than in the lean group (p < .05). Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) was not different between the groups. Total energy expenditure increased gradually as the exercise intensity increased in both groups (p < .05). The obese group had significantly greater total energy expenditure in all three HIIE intensities than the lean group. FMD tended to be higher and baPWV lower as the exercise intensity increased in both groups. Only the HIIE at 170% demonstrated greater FMD compared with the baseline in both groups. baPWV decreased significantly after HIIE at 130 and 170% VO2peak in both groups.
Supramaximal HIIE can be a feasible exercise modality for improving vascular function in obese prepubescent boys. Future exercise intervention studies are warranted.
Ryan S. Garten, Matthew C. Scott, Tiffany M. Zúñiga, Austin C. Hogwood, R. Carson Fralin and Jennifer Weggen
detrimental nature of prolonged sitting on lower limb vascular function, the need for adequate interventions to counteract the negative effects of sitting is of the utmost importance. Moderate-intensity aerobic exercise done prior to sitting has been revealed to be effective at counteracting prolonged sitting
Xiao Bao, Jie-Wen Tan, Ying Long, Howe Liu and Hui-Yu Liu
Objective: To study the effect of intermittent hypoxia training (IHT) for dizziness. Design: A single-blind, randomized controlled trial. All participants were recruited from a rehabilitation department in an acute university-affiliated hospital. Intervention: Participants with dizziness were randomly assigned to 2 groups (IHT group and control group). The Dizziness Handicap Inventory, Activities-specific Balance Confidence Scale, and Vertigo Visual Analog Scale were conducted at baseline, end of the fourth week. Results: Among 52 subjects, there were18 males and 34 females, ages 35 to 62 years old (mean [SD] = 46.9 [7.93]). Time length since onset ranged from 12 to 34 months (20.2 [7.15] mo). Dizziness Handicap Inventory, Activities-specific Balance Confidence Scale, Vertigo Visual Analog Scale scores, and attack frequencies of dizziness were improved after IHT intervention in the end of the fourth week. There were significant differences between the IHT group and the control group in the Dizziness Handicap Inventory, Activities-specific Balance Confidence Scale, Vertigo Visual Analog Scale scores, and attack frequencies of dizziness at the end of the fourth week (P < .05). No adverse events occurred during the study. Conclusion: IHT could improve dizziness after intervention at the end of the fourth week. IHT could be the effective method for treating dizziness.
Joaquin U. Gonzales, Dustin M. Grinnell, Martha J. Kalasky and David N. Proctor
The authors examined interindividual and sex-specific variation in systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure responses to graded leg-extension exercise in healthy older (60–78 yr) women (n = 21) and men (n = 19). Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), body composition, physical activity (accelerometry), and vascular function were measured to identify predictors of exercise BP. Neither VO2max nor activity counts were associated with the rise in SBP or DBP during exercise in men. The strongest predictors of these responses in men were age (SBP: r 2 = .19, p = .05) and peak exercise leg vasodilation (DBP: r 2 = –.21, p < .05). In women, the modest relationship observed between VO2max and exercise BP was abolished after adjusting for central adiposity and activity counts (best predictors, cumulative r 2 = .53, p < .05, for both SBP and DBP). These results suggest that determinants of variation in submaximal exercise BP responses among older adults are sex specific, with daily physical activity influencing these responses in women but not men.
Ruth E. Taylor-Piliae, Joan M. Fair, William L. Haskell, Ann N. Varady, Carlos Iribarren, Mark A. Hlatky, Alan S. Go and Stephen P. Fortmann
This study examined the construct validity and reliability of the new 2-item Stanford Brief Activity Survey (SBAS).
Secondary analysis was conducted using data collected from the healthy older controls (n = 1023) enrolled in the Atherosclerotic Disease Vascular Function and Genetic Epidemiology (ADVANCE) study. Construct validity was examined by regression analyses to evaluate significant trends (P ≤ .05) across the SBAS activity categories for the selected psychological health factors measured at baseline and year 2, adjusted for gender, ethnicity and education level. Test-retest reliability was performed using Spearman’s rank correlation.
At baseline, subjects were 66 ± 2.8 years old, 38% female, 77% married, 61% retired, 24% college graduate, and 68% Caucasian. At baseline, lower self-reported stress, anxiety, depression, and cynical distrust, and higher self-reported mental and physical well-being were significantly associated with higher levels of physical activity (p trend ≤ 0.01). These associations held at year 2. The test-retest reliability of the SBAS was statistically significant (rs= 0.62, P < .001).
These results provide evidence of the construct validity and reliability of the SBAS in older adults. We also found a strong dose-response relationship between regular physical activity and psychological health in older adults, independent of gender, education level and ethnicity.
Saowaluck Suntraluck, Hirofumi Tanaka and Daroonwan Suksom
, Matten, Sieverdes, & Zaccaria 2015 ). Currently, it is not known if warm-water-based exercise training is effective in improving physical fitness and vascular function in older patients with type 2 diabetes. This is unfortunate because water-based exercise might be advantageous for older patients with
Ali M. McManus, Nathan R. Sletten and Daniel J. Green
It is now recognized that exercise provides a direct antiatherogenic effect on vascular health ( 23 ). Early deterioration in vascular function, particularly alterations in endothelial integrity, is significant in the development of cardiovascular disease ( 1 ). Although there is evidence of