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Alejandro Pérez-Castilla and Amador García-Ramos

Advances in sport technology have enabled the proliferation of velocity-based resistance training among strength and conditioning professionals. 1 , 2 Findings within the scientific literature support the use of this form of training as a viable method to optimize the prescription and monitoring

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Alejandro Pérez-Castilla, Daniel Boullosa, and Amador García-Ramos

Objective: To evaluate the sensitivity of the iLOAD® application to detect the changes in mean barbell velocity of complete sets following power- and strength-oriented resistance training (RT) programs. Methods: Twenty men were randomly assigned to a power training group (countermovement jump and bench press throw at 40% of the 1-repetition maximum [1RM]) or strength training group (back squat and bench press at 70% to 90% of 1RM). Single sets of 10 repetitions at 25% and 70% of 1RM during the back squat and bench press exercises were assessed before and after the 4-week RT programs simultaneously with the iLOAD® application and a linear velocity transducer. Results: The power training group showed a greater increment in velocity performance at the 25% of 1RM (effect size range = 0.66–1.53) and the 70% of 1RM (effect size range = 0.11–0.30). The percent change in mean velocity after the RT programs highly correlated between the iLOAD® application and the linear velocity transducer for the back squat (r range = .85–.88) and bench press (r range = .87–.93). However, the iLOAD® application revealed a 2% greater increase in mean velocity after training compared to the linear velocity transducer. Conclusions: The iLOAD® application is a cost-effective, portable, and easy-to-use tool which can be used to detect changes in mean barbell velocity after power- and strength-oriented RT programs.

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Miguel Sánchez-Moreno, David Rodríguez-Rosell, Fernando Pareja-Blanco, Ricardo Mora-Custodio, and Juan José González-Badillo

Purpose: To analyze the relationship between movement velocity and relative load (%1RM) in the pull-up exercise (PU) and to determine the pattern of repetition-velocity loss during a single set to failure in pulling one’s own body mass. Methods: Fifty-two men (age = 26.5 ± 3.9 y, body mass = 74.3 ± 7.2 kg) performed a first evaluation (T1) consisting of an 1-repetition-maximum test (1RM) and a test of maximum number of repetitions to failure pulling one’s own body mass (MNR) in the PU exercise. Thirty-nine subjects performed both tests on a second occasion (T2) following 12 wk of training. Results: The authors observed a strong relationship between mean propulsive velocity (MPV) and %1RM (r = −.96). Mean velocity attained with 1RM load (V1RM) was 0.20 ± 0.05 m·s−1, and it influenced the MPV attained with each %1RM. Although 1RM increased by 3.4% from T1 to T2, the relationship between MPV and %1RM, and V1RM, remained stable. The authors also confirmed stability in the V1RM regardless of individual relative strength. The authors found a strong relationship between percentage of velocity loss and percentage of performed repetitions (R 2 = .88), which remained stable despite a 15% increase in MNR. Conclusions: Monitoring repetition velocity allows estimation of the %1RM used as soon as the first repetition with a given load is performed, and the number of repetitions remaining in reserve when a given percentage of velocity loss is achieved during a PU exercise set.

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Fernando Pareja-Blanco, Luis Sánchez-Medina, Luis Suárez-Arrones, and Juan José González-Badillo

Purpose:

To analyze the effects of 2 resistance-training (RT) programs that used the same relative loading but different repetition volume, using the velocity loss during the set as the independent variable: 15% (VL15) vs 30% (VL30).

Methods:

Sixteen professional soccer players with RT experience (age 23.8 ± 3.5 y, body mass 75.5 ± 8.6 kg) were randomly assigned to 2 groups, VL15 (n = 8) or VL30 (n = 8), that followed a 6-wk (18-session) velocity-based squat-training program. Repetition velocity was monitored in all sessions. Assessments performed before (Pre) and after training (Post) included estimated 1-repetition maximum (1RM) and change in average mean propulsive velocity (AMPV) against absolute loads common to Pre and Post tests, countermovement jump (CMJ), 30-m sprint (T30), and Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test (YIRT). Null-hypothesis significance testing and magnitude-based-inference statistical analyses were performed.

Results:

VL15 obtained greater gains in CMJ height than VL30 (P < .05), with no significant differences between groups for the remaining variables. VL15 showed a likely/possibly positive effect on 1RM (91/9/0%), AMPV (73/25/2%), and CMJ (87/12/1%), whereas VL30 showed possibly/unclear positive effects on 1RM (65/33/2%) and AMPV (46/36/18%) and possibly negative effects on CMJ (4/38/57%). The effects on T30 performance were unclear/unlikely for both groups, whereas both groups showed most likely/likely positive effects on YIRT.

Conclusions:

A velocity-based RT program characterized by a low degree of fatigue (15% velocity loss in each set) is effective to induce improvements in neuromuscular performance in professional soccer players with previous RT experience.

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Aitor Iturricastillo, Cristina Granados, Raúl Reina, José Manuel Sarabia, Ander Romarate, and Javier Yanci

Purpose: To analyze the relationship between mean propulsive velocity (MPV) of the bar and relative load (percentage of the 1-repetition maximum [%1RM]) in the bench-press (BP) exercise and to determine the relationship of power variables (ie, mean concentric power [MP], mean propulsive power [MPP], and peak power [PP]) in change-of-direction ability, linear sprint, and repeated-sprint ability. Methods: A total of 9 Spanish First Division wheelchair basketball players participated in the study. All participants performed an isoinertial BP test in free execution mode, a 505 change-of-direction ability test, linear sprint test (20 m), and repeated-sprint ability test. Results: A nearly perfect and inverse relationship was observed for the BP exercise between the %1RM and MPV (r = −.97, R 2 = .945, P < .001). The maximum loads for MP, MPP, and PP were obtained between 48.1% and 59.4% of the 1RM. However, no significant correlations were observed between strength and wheelchair performance. Conclusions: Wheelchair basketball players with different functional impairments showed a nearly perfect and inverse relationship for the BP exercise between the %1RM and MPV; thus the MPV could be used to estimate the %1RM. This finding has important practical applications for velocity-based resistance training in that coaches would be able to prescribe and monitor training load. Conversely, the absence of association between BP performance and field tests might be due to other factors such as the wheelchair–user interface, trunk-muscle activity, or propulsion technique, apart from strength variables.

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Alejandro Pérez-Castilla, Antonio Piepoli, Gabriel Garrido-Blanca, Gabriel Delgado-García, Carlos Balsalobre-Fernández, and Amador García-Ramos

Movement velocity has been proposed as a nonfatiguing method for predicting the 1RM. 1 An increasing number of devices are available on the market to measure movement velocity. The linear position and velocity transducers have been the 2 most commonly used devices to examine the velocity-based

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Irineu Loturco, Antonio Dello Iacono, Fábio Y. Nakamura, Tomás T. Freitas, Daniel Boullosa, Pedro L. Valenzuela, Lucas A. Pereira, and Michael R. McGuigan

press performance in college football players . J Strength Cond Res . 1998 ; 12 : 258 – 261 . 65. González-Badillo JJ , Pareja-Blanco F , Rodríguez-Rosell D , Abad-Herencia JL , Del Ojo-López JJ , Sánchez-Medina L . Effects of velocity-based resistance training on young soccer

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Irineu Loturco, Lucas A. Pereira, Tomás T. Freitas, Chris Bishop, Fernando Pareja-Blanco, and Michael R. McGuigan

.1519/JSC.0b013e3182804a6d 11. González-Badillo J , Sánchez-Medina L , Pareja-Blanco F , Rodríguez-Rosell D . Fundamentals of Velocity-based Resistance Training . Murcia, Spain : Ergotech ; 2017 . 12. Zatsiorsky V , Kraemer WJ . Science and Practice of Strength Training . Champaign, IL

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Irineu Loturco, Timothy Suchomel, Chris Bishop, Ronaldo Kobal, Lucas A. Pereira, and Michael McGuigan

velocity-based resistance training on young soccer players of different ages . J Strength Cond Res . 2015 ; 29 : 1329 – 1338 . PubMed ID: 25486303 doi:10.1519/JSC.0000000000000764 10.1519/JSC.0000000000000764 11. Gonzalez-Badillo JJ , Marques MC , Sanchez-Medina L . The importance of movement

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Peter Ibbott, Nick Ball, Marijke Welvaert, and Kevin G. Thompson

during 6 weeks of velocity-based resistance training on sport-specific performance tests . J Strength Cond Res . 2011 ; 25 ( 1 ): 87 – 93 . PubMed ID: 21157389 doi:10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181fee634 10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181fee634 21157389