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Arth R.R. Pahwa, Dylan J. Miller, Jeremy B. Caplan and David F. Collins

This study was designed to assess the effects of acute exercise on performance of a paired associate learning (PAL) test, an operationalization of hippocampal-dependent associative memory. Participants performed a PAL test and then ran on a treadmill (exercise group, n = 52) or solved Sudoku puzzles (control group, n = 54). Participants returned 2, 5, or 8 hr later to perform a second, different, PAL test. PAL scores for the control group did not change over time. Similarly, scores on tests taken 2 and 5 hr after exercise were not different from baseline or control data. Scores on tests taken 8 hr after exercise, however, fell significantly below baseline (by 8.6%) and control (by 9.8%) scores. These data demonstrate that acute exercise can negatively affect the encoding and retrieval of new information even hours after the exercise bout, which should be a consideration when designing exercise programs to enhance, and not hinder, learning.

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Megan Elizabeth Evelyn Mormile, Jody L. Langdon and Tamerah Nicole Hunt

function with regards to recall, verbal memory, visual memory, processing speed, reaction time, and attention. 12 Unfortunately, baseline testing may be affected by extrinsic factors that impair the integrity and clinical interpretation of baseline scores. These factors include previous history of

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J.D. DeFreese, Michael J. Baum, Julianne D. Schmidt, Benjamin M. Goerger, Nikki Barczak, Kevin M. Guskiewicz and Jason P. Mihalik

, and more traditional, tests of neurocognition. 29 , 30 Table  2 presents the neurocognitive tests and clinical domains. Table 2 CNS Vital Signs Test Modules, Cognitive Domains Evaluated, and Overview of the Test Module Neurocognitive test Cognitive domain(s) Overview of test module Verbal memory

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Rachele E. Vogelpohl, Rachel A. Lindsey, Christopher D. Stickley, Ronald K. Hetzler, Whitney Williams and Iris F. Kimura

Subconcussive head impacts do not result in outward signs of neurological dysfunction, however they may have an effect on neurocognitive function. Limited research has indicated that negative changes in neurocognitive function occurs in high school football athletes as a result of one season of football. The purpose of this study was to prospectively evaluate the effects of one season of high school football on neurocognitive test scores. Results revealed a significant group and time interaction effect (p < .001) for the Verbal Memory composite score of the ImPACT test. Further analysis revealed a significant difference in the Verbal Memory score between groups at postseason (p < .01), with the football group scoring lower than the low contact group. It appears that one season of high school football may have a negative effect on the Verbal Memory composite score of the ImPACT test in high school football athletes.

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Mindi Fisher, Ryan Tierney, Anne Russ and Jamie Mansell

information or had a history of learning disorder or epilepsy. Outcome Measures Computerize measure of symptoms, symptom rating, and cognitive function intended for concussions was completed using the ImPACT testing battery. ImPACT composite scores (verbal memory, visual memory, visual-motor speed, reaction

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Kate Riegle van West, Cathy Stinear and Ralph Buck

cognitive tests from CNS Vital Signs, a computerized test battery utilizes validated neuropsychological tests to evaluate neurocognitive status ( Gualtieri & Johnson, 2006 ). (a) Verbal memory (VBM) and visual memory (VIM): the participant is instructed to remember 15 words (VBM) or shapes (VIM), then

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Ashley L. Santo, Melissa L. Race and Elizabeth F. Teel

verbal memory, visual motor speed, and reaction time. 16 Additionally, binocular vision is one of the most important visual cues for spatial orientation, making it of utmost importance in many sports. Athletes perform significantly better than nonathletes on measures of vergence facility, saccades

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Jacqueline Phillips, Kelly Cheever, Jamie McKeon and Ryan Tierney

symptoms that present with the sequel of this injury. Furthermore, NPC measurements have been associated with neurocognitive performances and it has been found that receded NPC scores are a significant predictor for poor reaction time, verbal memory, and visual motor speed. 11 As pointed out by the

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Deborah A.M. Jehu, Nicole Paquet and Yves Lajoie

and attention: working memory/mental tracking; d verbal memory: verbal automatisms; e verbal function and language skills: discourse; f concept formation and reasoning: mathematical procedures; g verbal functions and language skills: verbal academic skills; and h memory: verbal memory. The BMT

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Nicholas M. Hattrup, Rebekah L. Gardiner, Hannah Gray, Cailee E. Welch Bacon and Tamara C. Valovich McLeod

) patient sensitivity estimates were measured using a scale based on 68% and 90% confidence intervals for normative baseline paradigms (a) ImPACT composite scores (verbal, memory, visual motor speed, reaction time, PCSS, (b) reliable change calculations, (c) normative to individualized comparison (a) Baseline and